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Author: Grote, Heiner

The word “offices,” derived from Lat. officium (office, duty), is used in two main senses in the Roman Catholic Church.

In: The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online
Author: Werner Rösener

In the Frankish realm, the focal point of the empire's administration was unmistakably the royal court. The heart of the royal court consisted of the courtly officeholders and royal functionaries who always remained in the king's vicinity. Information regarding the court offices and their fields of

The Index Islamicus consists of the following publications: Index Islamicus Online, the full-text searchable electronic database. Index Islamicus, the annual journal (print edition in 1 yearbook, previously 4 single issues). Index Islamicus Yearbooks , the annual yearbook (print edition available individually or as set). Supplements to the Index Islamicus, specialized bibliographies in print.

The Index Islamicus is the international classified bibliography of publications in European languages on all aspects of Islam and the Muslim world from 1906 onwards until present day. Material cited in the Index Islamicus includes not only work written about the Middle East, but also about the other main Muslim areas of Asia and Africa, plus Muslim minorities elsewhere. The Index Islamicus is edited by Gregor Schwarb, Heather Bleaney, Pablo García Suárez and Susan Sinclair.

Presently, Index Islamicus contains over 575,000 records, covering all the main Muslim areas of Asia and Africa, as well as Muslims living elsewhere, and their history, beliefs, societies, cultures, languages and literatures. It includes material published by Western scholars in the fields of Humanities and Social Sciences, specialist area- and subject-based areas, and by Muslims writing in European languages. Publications recorded are in the form of articles, books and book chapters. All essays and papers contained in multi-author volumes are recorded, classified and indexed separately.

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The well-known Index Islamicus classification scheme, uniquely and carefully geared to the field of Islamic Studies, allows one to quickly find all literature headed under a particular, broader subject area (e.g., Education, Philosophy, Shīʿism, Sudan, Palestine, Israel, as well as their subcategories).

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Author: Mark Grundeken

Abstract

This article challenges the common opinion that the Shepherd of Hermas gives evidence for the office of deacon in the early Christian communities in Rome (Vis. 3.5.1; Sim. 9.15.4; 9.26.2). It suggests that the mention of the διάκονοι within the context of Hermas’ call to µετάνοια as “admirable” respectively “despicable” believers makes it difficult to decide whether these examples are existing or imaginary figures. Moreover, it notes that the διάκονοι, unlike the presiding presbyters (Vis. 2.2.6-7; 2.4.2-3; 3.9.7), are not associated with the ἐκκλησία in Rome and not directly addressed. The article is meant to be a prelude to new enquiries into the development of offices in the early church.

In: Vigiliae Christianae

See Ministry, Ministerial Offices

In: The Encyclopedia of Christianity Online
National Experiences throughout the World
This volume reflects the findings of a conference organized in preparation of setting up a national human rights commission and ombudsman institution in the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia. The meeting assembled experts in the field of the protection and promotion of human rights, and of the problems of countries in transition from a non-democratic system, characterized by gross violations of human rights, towards a democratic system based on the rule of law and respect for human rights. The book analyses the functioning of national human rights commissions and ombudsman institutions in 23 different countries, by means of country report written in the main by members of these institutions themselves and containing an assessment of their experience. Many offer relevant constitutional and legislative provisions as well. This volume thus forms a unique collection of materials dealing with national human rights commissions and ombudsman offices.

[German Version] Ministerial or occasional offices are so called because they are usually performed by the minister (Pastoral office). But this is also true of other ministerial functions (e.g. celebration of the Lord's Supper) that are not included among the ministerial offices. The members of the