critically employed for developing future archaeological research programs on Kintampo open-airsites. The most important of those results relate to the awareness that geophysics will perform relatively well at Kintampo sites, though special attention should be paid to survey at locations whose surface
The analysis of stone artefacts from the open-air localities of Geelbek and Anyskop in the Western Cape of South Africa offers new insight into the behaviour of Middle Stone Age hunters and gatherers. We examined five deflation bays in these mobile dune systems which, in contrast to caves or rockshelters, display large-scale spatial patterning with regard to the distribution of lithic artefacts and faunal remains. The definition of raw material units enabled us to reconstruct the patterns of production, use, and discard of stone artefacts. The results reveal that hunters and gatherers, such as those who produced Howiesons Poort stone artefacts, employed diverse planning strategies in terms of raw material exploitation, transport technology and site use. Although the faunal remains are not yet fully evaluated, the presence of stone points and segments suggests that hunting played an important role among the activities documented at Geelbek and Anyskop. The low number and heterogeneity of the stone artefacts suggest that people of the Middle Stone Age were highly mobile.
The cool, moist, tropical highlands of southwest Ethiopia contrast dramatically with arid environments in the rest of the Horn of Africa. They have seen little archaeological research due to their remote location, wet conditions, and acidic soils and volcanic rocks thought to harbor few shelters or open-air sites capable of organic preservation. In 2004–2005, the Kafa Archaeological Project documented 27 shelters of diverse height, configuration, and formation processes; ten merited test excavations. Three have late Holocene cultural deposits, while another has high densities of ceramics, lithics, bone, and dried plant remains extending back to the middle Holocene. These sites suggest that the tropical highlands of Kafa contain numerous previously occupied caves and rockshelters with good organic preservation. Therefore, they have the potential of 1) establishing the region’s first Holocene cultural chronology that can be compared with better-studied areas of the Horn and eastern Africa; 2) contributing to a regional environmental record; and 3) reconstructing hunter-gatherer, farming and/or herding economics and social organization during a period of increasing socio-political complexity.
to widen the Guene-Kompa road. The site is also at risk in case of major floods of the Niger River. 5 Site The open-airsite of Tin Tin Kanza is a large settlement mound of c. 20 m high, overlooking the Niger River. The extent of the mound is approximately 16,000 m². The land is under cultivation and
and all, except for one Earlier Stone Age ( ESA ) site which contained large bifacial cores, bifaces and an array of core management pieces, are LSA rock shelters or open-airsites, some with open-air components and agropastoralist residues. Specific patterns associated with these two site contexts
Positioned near Mombo, the archaeological site of Kwa Mgogo is particularly important. It is an open-airsite perched along a low ridge south of the dramatic West Usambara Mountains. On its surface, Kwa Mgogo exhibits a dense scatter of early ceramics and beads made from landsnail shell. The
Zambezi, Save and Limpopo, where numerous open-airsites yielded stone artifacts in Plio-Pleistocene sediments (Barradas 1945; Ervedosa 1968; Morais 1984; Santos Júnior 1937, 1950; Soares de Carvalho et al. 1974). Additional surveys included coastal cliffs and barrier islands where relict beach deposits
the sites of Kolo, Tapague, and Gorou Banda (Vernet 1996: 142, 322; summary in Haour 2003b). In southeast Burkina Faso, the Chaîne de Gobnangou, a sandstone massif with a steep escarpment, rises ca. 100 m above the surrounding plains with their Sudanian savannas. Two rock shelter sites and one open-air
known ostrich eggshell ( OES ) beads were reported from an open-airsite at Loiyangalani in Serengeti National Park ( SENAPA ) in Tanzania; these are dated at about 73,000 BP (Feather and Fusch 2005, Bower and Mabulla 2013). Detailed evidence from Southern and Eastern Africa, in particular at Panga ya
; Van Peer et al. 2003) and the Egyptian oases (Caton-Thompson 1952; Wendorf et al. 1993), cave sites in the Red Sea Mountains (Kindermann et al. 2013; Schmidt et al. 2015) and individual open-airsites in the desert (Masojć et al. 2017) have been recorded. While sites representing the Levallois