WORDS: cichlids, suction feeding, hyoid, suspensorium, head, morphospace, optimalitymodel. INTRODUCTION The power and movements required for suction feeding in fish are provided by complex chains of muscles, ligaments and skeletal elements (for cichlids: ANKER, 1978a; BAREL, 1983; OTTEN, 1983). Using a
young adults on multisensory tasks has also been shown to be consistent with the optimalmodel of integration when making judgements in experiments which use different stimulus properties (e.g., spatial location) and different sensory pairings (e.g., audiovisual) (Alais and Burr, 2004; Drewing and Ernst
proportion of prey fled when I turned toward them than away from them. Possible cues used by lizards to assess risk are direction of turning per se and increased visibility of eye and facial features or other morphological correlates of orientation. Ydenberg & Dill's (1986) optimalitymodel of escape
plentiful in the area, and the total area that had to be searched was less than half of that contained in a full circle of habitat around the colony. Most flocks at the foraging sites were large (mean = 151 for the 113 flocks used to assess the optimalitymodel), and in open areas could normally be detected
a random effect. The baseline condition corresponded to estimated accuracy in the natural playback rate condition.
2.7. Bayes-Optimal Inference Model: Construction
We created a one-dimensional Bayes-optimalmodel of speech perception to test if the large individual differences in perception
This paper discusses the judicial dialogue between the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union regarding the placing of hyperlinks on the internet. Firstly, the case law of the CJEU in the light of the linkage is analysed. This shows the scope of restrictions created by this judicial authority in the area of copyright. Secondly, the judgment of the ECHR will be cited and analysed as regards the relationship between placing hyperlinks on the internet and freedom of expression. There is a judicial dialogue with the CJEU, which focuses attention on the human rights aspect of hyperlinks. Thirdly, the correlation between the jurisprudence of the CJEU and the ECHR will be analysed, including a functional interpretation. The paper ends with a discussion about the potential of this judicial dialogue for the wider purpose of building an optimal model for European dialogue.
optimalitymodel, but, as I point out below, they are not entirely consistent with this model. These discrepancies are accounted for by the motivational model that I subsequently develop. The optimalitymodel A major problem in the analysis of behaviour concerns the choice of ap- propriate units for
relationships. For the Bayesian analysis, the sequence data were partitioned by codon position for both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and a total of 12 partitions (c-mos, Rag-1, cyt. b and ND4 codon position 1, pos 2, pos 3) were given. The optimalmodel of evolution for each partition was chosen by
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Rivas-Martínez S. Estudio de la vegetación y flora de las
interact if the animal is to achieve a maximally ef cient regulation of internal state. Here, I rely on an optimalitymodel proposed by S IBLY & M C F ARLAND (1976). Predictions made by this model are discussed, and it is shown that results from published studies on feeding and drinking in Barbary doves