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Authors: J. De Visser and C.D.N. Barel

WORDS: cichlids, suction feeding, hyoid, suspensorium, head, morphospace, optimality model. INTRODUCTION The power and movements required for suction feeding in fish are provided by complex chains of muscles, ligaments and skeletal elements (for cichlids: ANKER, 1978a; BAREL, 1983; OTTEN, 1983). Using a

In: Netherlands Journal of Zoology

young adults on multisensory tasks has also been shown to be consistent with the optimal model of integration when making judgements in experiments which use different stimulus properties (e.g., spatial location) and different sensory pairings (e.g., audiovisual) (Alais and Burr, 2004; Drewing and Ernst

In: Multisensory Research

proportion of prey fled when I turned toward them than away from them. Possible cues used by lizards to assess risk are direction of turning per se and increased visibility of eye and facial features or other morphological correlates of orientation. Ydenberg & Dill's (1986) optimality model of escape

In: Behaviour
Author: Roger M. Evans

plentiful in the area, and the total area that had to be searched was less than half of that contained in a full circle of habitat around the colony. Most flocks at the foraging sites were large (mean = 151 for the 113 flocks used to assess the optimality model), and in open areas could normally be detected

In: Behaviour

a random effect. The baseline condition corresponded to estimated accuracy in the natural playback rate condition. 2.7. Bayes-Optimal Inference Model: Construction We created a one-dimensional Bayes-optimal model of speech perception to test if the large individual differences in perception

In: Multisensory Research


This paper discusses the judicial dialogue between the European Court of Human Rights and the Court of Justice of the European Union regarding the placing of hyperlinks on the internet. Firstly, the case law of the CJEU in the light of the linkage is analysed. This shows the scope of restrictions created by this judicial authority in the area of copyright. Secondly, the judgment of the ECHR will be cited and analysed as regards the relationship between placing hyperlinks on the internet and freedom of expression. There is a judicial dialogue with the CJEU, which focuses attention on the human rights aspect of hyperlinks. Thirdly, the correlation between the jurisprudence of the CJEU and the ECHR will be analysed, including a functional interpretation. The paper ends with a discussion about the potential of this judicial dialogue for the wider purpose of building an optimal model for European dialogue.

In: International Community Law Review
Author: Nigel P. Lester

optimality model, but, as I point out below, they are not entirely consistent with this model. These discrepancies are accounted for by the motivational model that I subsequently develop. The optimality model A major problem in the analysis of behaviour concerns the choice of ap- propriate units for

In: Behaviour

relationships. For the Bayesian analysis, the sequence data were partitioned by codon position for both mitochondrial and nuclear genes, and a total of 12 partitions (c-mos, Rag-1, cyt. b and ND4 codon position 1, pos 2, pos 3) were given. The optimal model of evolution for each partition was chosen by

In: Amphibia-Reptilia
Authors: M.J. GIL and V. PEREZ-MELLADO

dimorphism Can. J. Zool 1984 62 428 440 Pyke G.H. Pulliam H.R. Charnov E.L. Optimal foraging: a selective review of theory and test Q. Rev. Biol 1977 52 137 154 Rapport D.J. An optimal model of food selection Am. Nat 1971 106 683 718 Rivas-Martínez S. Estudio de la vegetación y flora de las

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution

interact if the animal is to achieve a maximally efŽ cient regulation of internal state. Here, I rely on an optimality model proposed by S IBLY & M C F ARLAND (1976). Predictions made by this model are discussed, and it is shown that results from published studies on feeding and drinking in Barbary doves

In: Behaviour