Teresa Romero, Kenji Onishi and Toshikazu Hasegawa

, and neuro-hormones from the vasopressin/oxytocin family (Adkins-Regan, 2005 ; Soares et al., 2010 ), the latter has recently attracted attention regarding the neurochemical basis of prosocial behaviours that facilitate inter-individual relationships (for reviews, see Heinrichs et al., 2009 ; Ross

Sarah F. Brosnan, Catherine F. Talbot, Jennifer L. Essler, Kelly Leverett, Timothy Flemming, Patrick Dougall, Carla Heyler and Paul J. Zak

1. Introduction Oxytocin (OT), and hormones that interact with OT, are important in the regulation of mammalian social behaviours, including maternal care, pair bonding and other aspects of sociality (Gimpl & Fahrenholz, 2001 ; Carter & Keverne, 2002 ; Young & Wang, 2004 ; Kosfeld et

Adam R. Reddon, Mathew R. Voisin, Constance M. O’Connor and Sigal Balshine

the proximate mechanisms that underlie grouping behaviour (Goodson, 2008 , 2013 ; Goodson et al., 2009 ; Soares et al., 2010 ; Goodson & Kingsbury, 2011 ). One promising potential proximate mediator of sociality is the highly conserved nonapeptide hormone oxytocin (Insel & Young, 2001

Patricia S. Churchland

do mammalian mothers typically go to great lengths to feed and care for their babies? After all, such care can be demanding, it interferes with feeding, and it can be dangerous. Two central characters in the neurobiological explanation of mammalian other-care are the simple nonapeptides, oxytocin

Patricia S. Churchland


What we humans call ethics or morality depends on four interlocking brain processes: (1) caring (supported by the neuroendocrine system, and emerging in the young as a function of parental care); (2) learning local social practices and the ways of others — by positive and negative reinforcement, by imitation, by trial and error, by various kinds of conditioning, and by analogy; (3) recognition of others’ psychological states (goals, feelings etc.); (4) problem-solving in a social context. These four broad capacities are not unique to humans, but are probably uniquely developed in human brains by virtue of the expansion of the prefrontal cortex (this formulation is based on Chapter 1 of my book, Braintrust: What neuroscience tells us about morality).


Courtney B. Kelsch, Gail Ironson, Angela Szeto, Heidemarie Kremer, Neil Schneiderman and Armando J. Mendez

A.J. Machin and R.I.M Dunbar

to adequately identify the neurobiological and behavioural mechanisms which maintain these complex, diverse and enduring social networks. One neurobiological mechanism that has been overlooked is the endogenous opioid system. Though less explicitly researched than the more familiar oxytocin

Mario Fernando Garcés-Restrepo, Natalia Rivera-Domínguez, Alan Giraldo and John L. Carr

carried females with eggs to base camp and induced oviposition using the method described by Feldman ( 2007 ). Two hormones (veterinary grade) and a combination were used. In a first stage of the research we used oxytocin (7.5 units/kg) alone (Feldman, 2007 ); then, to improve the success rate of

Tamar Axelrad Levy and Joe Lancia

The human-animal bond has been gaining increased attention in many fields over the past few years. This has also included bringing animals into the psychotherapeutic space and incorporating them into the psychotherapeutic process. What is it about the bond between human and animal that might be beneficial in the process of psychological healing? How might this bond be useful – to the therapeutic process? How would the space created between the client – therapist – animals be different than if the animals were not present? We found three aspects which are valuable to consider in exploring these questions. The neurophysiologic aspect – scientific research showed hormonal changes that occur in the human body while petting animals: Oxytocin levels rise while adrenalin levels drop; thus, people relax and are often more open to mutual communication and feel less alienation and isolation that often felt by clients. Another aspect is the way we perceive companion animals: In general we perceive them as reliable and benign entities. We suggest that this positive attitude affects the client-therapist relationship and the establishment of the therapeutic alliance. A third aspect is that their presence facilitates a deeper exploration of the differences between the projected aspects of the relationship and the relationship in the present moment. We found that clients split their inner world and project different things on the therapist and on the animal.

Oren Harman

international relations . The New Republic 112 : 816 . Bales KL . . 2004 . Both oxytocin and vasopressin may influence alloparential behavior in male prarie voles . Hormones and Behavior 4 : 354 – 361 . Bales KL . . 2007 . Oxytocin has dose-dependant developmental effects on pair