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  • All: "parent-offspring conflict" x

Tomas Redondo, Montserrat Gomendio and Rosario Medina

SEX-BIASED PARENT-OFFSPRING CONFLICT by TOMAS REDONDO1), MONTSERRAT GOMENDIO2) and ROSARIO MEDINA3,4) (1 Department of Zoology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge CB2 3EJ, UK and Esta- ción Biológica de Doñana (C.S.I.C.), Pabellón del Perú, Apdo. 1056, E-41080 Sevilla, Spain, 2 Sub

Judy Stamps, Anne Clark, Pat Arrowood and Barbara Kus

PARENT-OFFSPRING CONFLICT IN BUDGERIGARS by JUDY STAMPS'), ANNE CLARK, PAT ARROWOOD and BARBARA KUS (Department of Zoology, University of California, Davis, California 95616 U.S.A.) (With 7 Figures) (Acc. 23-VII-1984) Introduction Ten years ago, TRIVERS (1974) introduced the concept of genetic

Peter J. Mayhew

stochasticity in brood size as a novel but widespread factor contributing to the stability of non-siblicidal behaviour. KEY WORDS: parasitoid, Hymenoptera, clutch size, parent-offspring conflict, siblicide, sibling rivalry, life-histories. INTRODUCTION In many animals, such as birds and various insects, adult

Ryan Nichols

the filial piety system in Confucian culture. The paper hypothesizes that filial piety developed in order to benefit parents by enabling them successfully to extract more resources out of their offspring than would be expected given data from parent–offspring conflict theory. The analysis of filial

Roslyn Dakin, Jenny Q. Ouyang, Ádám Z. Lendvai, Mark F. Haussmann, Ignacio T. Moore and Frances Bonier

- 312 . Stamps J. Clark A. Arrowood P. Kus B. ( 1989 ). Begging behavior in budgerigars . — Ethology 81 : 177 - 192 . Trivers R.L. ( 1974 ). Parent–offspring conflict . — Am. Zool. 14 : 249 - 264 . Winkler D.W. Luo M.K. Rakhimberdiev E. ( 2013

ARNON LOTEM

of parent-offspring conflict Nature 1995a 376 133 138 Godfray H.C.J. Signalling of need between parents and young: parent-offspring conflict and sibling rivalry Am. Nat 1995b 146 1 24 Gottlander K. Parental feeding behaviour and sibling competition in the pied flycatcher Ficedula

Kevin J. Cash and Roger M. Evans

the observed low frequencies of Convulsion after those feeds in which the chick's throat became distended do not support CHAPMAN'S (in BENT, 1964) con- tention that the display aids in swallowing. Convulsion as a manifestation of parent-offspring conflict. Parent-offspring conflict theory (TRIVERS

Cyrille Barrette and Danielle Gauthier

progressive and ranges from total dependence on the mother in the form of milk to complete independence. The respective contributions of mother and young in this lengthy parting leads to so called "parent-offspring conflicts" (e.g. TRIVERS, 1974). If such a conflict takes place it should be apparent in the

R.M. Kilner

Abstract

A variety of family conflicts can influence provisioning behaviour at the passerine nest. There can be sexual and parent-offspring conflict over the amount of food provided for young, and sibling conflict over how food is allocated among the brood. Whatever the type of conflict, its resolution may be determined by nestling begging displays, and its intensity will vary between species with variation in % EPY. Begging intensity is therefore predicted to vary with % EPY. One component of the begging display, that varies widely between species, is nestling mouth colour. Recent empirical work on canaries and great tits has shown that parents prefer to feed young with redder mouths, even if offspring naturally possess yellow gapes. I use comparative analyses to explain the diversity of nestling mouth colour between species in terms of the various family conflicts. In species where there are high rates of % EPY, and sibling and sexual conflicts are more intense, offspring that are reared in well-lit nests display redder mouths. Offspring reared in dark nests, however, show no such relationship and have yellower mouths generally. A comparison of Cuculinae species and host nestling mouth colour showed that cuckoo young have the redder mouths, which might be the result of more intense parent-offspring conflict. I suggest that nestling mouth colour reflects the intensity of family battles waged in the past, but only at nests where there is sufficient light for such visual displays to be perceived by parents. The diversity of nestling mouth colour can therefore be explained by both 'strategic' and 'tactical' influences on signal design. I conclude by discussing how variation in the choice of nest site within species might cause family differences in conflict resolution.

Roulin

Abstract

Following the theory of parent-offspring conflict parents request from their offspring an honest signal of food requirement to optimally adjust feeding rate. For this purpose, offspring display a highly informative signalling system, begging vocalisation, for which the conspicuousness to predators maintains honesty, since only hungry offspring are willing to take this risk. The risk of predation incurred by begging activities challenges our understanding of how begging vocalisation could evolve towards a high degree of noisiness. A solution to this apparent paradox resides in the possibility that alongside the evolution of begging, birds also evolved strategies that reduce the risk of being depredated. Following the ornithological literature nestlings scream in the presence of a predator to frighten it, induce parents to rescue them and siblings to flee from the nest and hide in the vegetation. I therefore propose the hypothesis that nestling screaming behaviour evolved as a means of reducing the risk of predation incurred by conspicuous begging. Comparative analyses supported the prediction postulating that species in which nestlings scream in the presence of a predator produce begging calls that are more conspicuous to predators than calls of non-screaming species. This suggests that the predation cost of begging lies not only in terms of predation per se but also in the requirement of anti-predator strategies.