This paper is a defense of the view that existence is a perfection. Anselm’s First Ontological Argument is referred to throughout. Two major objections are advanced: the ‘perfect island’ objection and the ‘perfect devil’ objection. A rebuttal of both, based on Anselm’s reply to Gaunilo, is tendered, but itself faces a major objection. Two lines of defense against this objection are possible. The first is sympathetically explained but it is argued that it ultimately fails. The second, which focuses on the idea of a perfection and a perfect being, is elaborated and defended against a seemingly powerful objection. It is concluded that there is a reasonable interpretation of the claim that existence is a perfection.
virtue. Over the course of its exposition, Hebrews holds in tension statements concerning the “perfection” of the believer with parenesis toward ethical “maturity.” Moreover, parallel passages state that Christ, a preexistent being superior to the angels, attained further “perfection” during his earthly
policies in clear and stark terms. 1 His rejection of perfectionism has been the subject of a number of influential critiques of his account of justice. 2 And his firm rejection of perfectionist ideals has struck many, including some who are otherwise quite sympathetic to his account of justice, as too
This important work focuses on early Quanzhen (Complete Perfection) Daoism, a twelfth-century Daoist religious movement and subsequent monastic order. Emphasis in this first study to approach Quanzhen from a comparative religious studies perspective is placed on the complex interplay among views of self, specific training regimens, and the types of experiences that were expected to follow from dedicated praxis. On the basis of historical contextualization and textual analysis it is demonstrated that in its formative and incipient organized phases Quanzhen was a Daoist religious community consisting of a few renunciants dedicated to religious praxis. The study proper is followed by a complete annotated translation of a text attributed to the founder, which represents one of only two early Quanzhen texts translated to date. Subsequent appendices address issues of dating and contents of the early textual corpus as well as technical Quanzhen religious terminology.
The Christian notion of perfection has deep roots in the Hebrew Scriptures, where, as in Christian thought, it is closely linked to the holiness of God. As used for God, “holiness” has reference to splendor or glory, separation from the unholy or ritually defiled, and purity. In the classic texts
[German Version] What is perfect lacks nothing that would make it better. It can surpass only itself. As a fundamental concept in logic and metaphysics, the idea of perfection, especially in the school metaphysics of Leibniz and Wolff, plays a leading part in defining the absolute: all positive
reason. My claim is that what is imperfect for us is, indeed, a perfection for God. Second, the paper explains how the Torah can attribute anger to God without undermining His other perfections, like His being unchanging and merciful. Third, taking off from the case of anger, the paper explores the
Philosophers have often described theism as the belief in the existence of a “perfect being”—a being that is said to possess all possible perfections, so that it is all-powerful, all-knowing, immutable, perfectly good, perfectly simple, and necessarily existent, among other qualities. But such a theology is difficult to reconcile with the God we find in the Bible and Talmud. The Question of God’s Perfection brings together leading scholars from the Jewish and Christian traditions to critically examine the theology of perfect being in light of the Hebrew Bible and classical rabbinic sources. Contributors are James A. Diamond, Lenn E. Goodman, Edward C. Halper, Yoram Hazony, Dru Johnson, Brian Leftow, Berel Dov Lerner, Alan L. Mittleman, Heather C. Ohaneson, Randy Ramal, Eleonore Stump, Alex Sztuden, and Joshua I. Weinstein.
. The implications of this marital practice, which required careful attention to the selection of marital partners and strict maintenance of disciplined sexual behavior, include an emphasis on loyalty to the movement and a commitment to ideals that we can understand in terms of a theology of perfection
The Great Perfection (rDzogs chen in Tibetan) is a philosophical and meditative teaching. Its inception is attributed to Vairocana, one of the first seven Tibetan Buddhist monks ordained at Samye in the eight century A.D. The doctrine is regarded among Buddhists as the core of the teachings adhered to by the Nyingmapa school whilst similarly it is held to be the fundamental teaching among the Bonpos, the non-Buddhist school in Tibet. After a historical introduction to Tibetan Buddhism and the Bon, the author deals with the legends of Vairocana (Part I), analysing early documents containing essential elements of the doctrine and comparing them with the Ch'an tradition. He goes on to explore in detail the development of the doctrine in the tenth and eleventh centuries A.D. (Part II). The Tantric doctrines that play an important role are dealt with, as are the rDzogs chen theories in relation to the other major Buddhist doctrines. Different trends in the rDzogs chen tradition are described in Part III. The author has drawn his sources mainly from early unpublished documents which throw light on the origins and development, at the same time also using a variety of sources which enabled him to explicate the crucial position which the doctrine occupies in Tibetan religions.