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Christina Michelle Skelton

1. Introduction Phylogenetic systematics, the set of methods originally developed in the biological sciences for reconstructing the evolutionary histories of groups of organisms, is an increasingly popular tool in historical linguistics for studying the development of language

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Making genealogical language classifications available for phylogenetic analysis

Newick trees, unified identifiers, and branch length

Dan Dediu

amount of change (such as most modern phylogenetic approaches) cannot be directly applied because, in general, branch length information is lacking (and for good reason, as we generally do not know how to estimate it). The work presented here attempts to offer a solution to these issues by giving the de

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Masoumeh Najibzadeh, Michael Veith, Ahmad Gharzi, Nasrullah Rastegar-Pouyani, Eskandar Rastegar-Pouyani, Sarah Kieren and Alireza Pesarakloo

world 6.0; date of last access: 14 February 2017) reflect differential delineation of subgenera within the genus Rana . Recently, Yuan et al. ( 2016 ) published a first comprehensive phylogenetic assessment of the genus based on a geographically rather complete sampling and several mitochondrial and

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Laura M. McDonagh, Helen West, James W. Harrison and Jamie R. Stevens

-based analyses have employed both nuclear and mitochondrial sequence data to explore the evolutionary origins and relationships of insects (Caterino et al. 2000 ; Misof et al. 2014 ), mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) in particular seems to have been favoured for applied studies, across a range of phylogenetic levels

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Sagi Snir

, D.L., Waddell, P.J. 1993. Partitioning and combining data in phylogenetic analysis. Syst. Biol. 42: 384-397. Chang, J.T. 1996. Full reconstruction of Markov models on evolutionary trees: identifiability and consistency. Math. Biosci. 137: 51-73. Chippindale, P.T., Wiens, J.J. 1994

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Bradley C. Livezey and Richard L. Zusi

HIGHER-ORDER PHYLOGENETICS OF MODERN AVES BASED ON COMPARATIVE ANATOMY by BRADLEY C. LIVEZEY1 and RICHARD L. ZUSI2 (1 Carnegie Museum of Natural History, Pittsburgh, PA; 2Natiorzal Museum of Natural History, Washington, D.C., USA) ABSTRACT New fossils have contributed much to our knowledge of

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Dana K. Howe, McKinley Smith, Danielle M. Tom, Amanda M.V. Brown, Amy B. Peetz, Inga A. Zasada and Dee R. Denver

hybridisation (FISH), genome sequencing and comparative functional genomics suggests it might function as a nutritional mutualist (Brown et al ., 2015). Recent efforts to understand further Xiphinematobacter biodiversity have focused on phylogenetic analyses of bacterial 16S rRNA gene sequences from

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Adrian Leuchtmann and Verner Michelsen

particular Epichloë host species, nor did associations follow a co-evolutionary pattern of fungus and flies based on comparative molecular phylogenetic analyses. However, absence of strict specificity on large scale may not exclude selectivity of flies for particular hosts on local scale. Fly preference

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Diego J. Inclán, James E. O’Hara, John O. Stireman III, Hiroshi Shima, Jaakko Pohjoismäki, Giuseppe Lo Giudice and Pierfilippo Cerretti

(/#) and data from each label is enclosed in quotation marks. Repositories of specimens are given in square brackets using the following acronyms: Terminology Morphological terminology follows Cumming & Wood (in press). Genetic data and phylogenetics Sequences of the 5’ end of

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Gerasimos Cassis, Philippe Koenig, Celia Symonds and Ryan Shofner

apply this criterion to Nethersia species to differentiate between host plant and sitting records. Plant associations are given in Table 3 . Phylogenetic analysis Character data were compiled using Nexus Data Editor (NDE) ( http://taxonomy.zoology.gla.ac.uk/rod/NDE/nde.html ) for 23