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Frederick R. Schram and Christopher Dixon

An expanded series of morphological characters developed for a cladistic analysis of extant decapods has yielded a new hypothesis for the phylogeny of the group. Application of this database to selected fossil genera produces some interesting results and demonstrates the feasibility of treating fossils as full and equal partners in the study of decapod phylogenetic relationships. In addition, it seems clear that rigorous cladistic methods can be used to evaluate the phylogenetic positions of fossils, rather than ad hoc speculation.

Henrik Glenner, Philip Francis Thomsen, Alexey V. Rybakov, Bella S. Galil and Jens T. Hoeg

Publications, New Delhi, pp. 161-187. Glenner, H., Hebsgaard, M. B. 2006. Phylogeny and evolution of life history strategies of the parasitic barnacles (Crustacea, Cirripedia, Rhizocephala). Mol. Phyl. Evol. 41: 528-538. Glenner, H., H�eg, J. T., Klysner, A., Brodin Larsen, B. 1989. Cypris

Mohammad Reza Atighi, Ebrahim Pourjam, Tiago José Pereira, Seyyed Mahmoud Okhovvat, Bashir Ahmad Alizada, Manuel Mundo-Ocampo and James G. Baldwin

, Ecphyadophorinae and Tylodorinae. On the other hand, De Ley and Blaxter (2002), using molecular data to revise Nematoda phylogeny, did not recognise lower taxonomic levels under Tylenchidae ( sensu De Ley & Blaxter, 2002). This omission underscores the need for further molecular studies to resolve relationships

A.J. de Boer

The “Baeturia and related genera complex”, as defined earlier (De Boer, 1990) by shared aedeagal characters, is identified as the tribe Chlorocystini (sensu stricto). The Prasiini (sensu stricto) are identified as the sister group of the Chlorocystini (sensu stricto), while the genus Muda is recognized as the nearest outgroup. The phylogeny and biogeography of the sister group and outgroup is briefly discussed. Baeturia kuroiwae Matsumura is transferred to the genus Muda. A phylogenetic reconstruction of all 147 species of the Chlorocystini (sensu stricto) is presented, based on 154 characters and 409 character states. The computer program PAUP 3.1.1 (Swofford, 1993) was used for analysing the data; the genera Prasia and Muda were used as outgroups in this analysis. The results obtained from the computer analysis were slightly modified a posteriori, favouring some presumably phylogenetically important characters over strongly fluctuating ones. These final modifications were carried out with the aid of the computer program MacClade 3.0 (Maddison & Maddison, 1992). A complete data matrix and a list of characters and character states are given in an appendix; for descriptions and illustrations of these characters one is referred to previous publications.

Edward Gaten

This paper addresses the use of eye structure and optics in the construction of crustacean phylogenies and presents an hypothesis for the evolution of superposition eyes in the Decapoda, based on the distribution of eye types in extant decapod families. It is suggested that reflecting superposition optics are symplesiomorphic for the Decapoda, having evolved only once, probably in the Devonian. Subsequent loss of reflecting superposition optics has occurred following the adoption of a new habitat (e.g. Aristeidae, Aeglidae) or by progenetic paedomorphosis (Paguroidea, Eubrachyura).

Cristian R. Altaba

The allozyme data base of Arntzen & García-París (1995) on midwife toads (Alytes, Discoglossidae) is reanalysed considering each locus as a discrete character. The phylogeny thus inferred differs from the one obtained with genetic distances in the position of A. dickhilleni from the Betic region – it appears that its sister species is the widespread A. obstetricans, not the Mallorcan endemic A. muletensis. This phylogenetic hypothesis agrees with the taxonomic treatment of the genus based on morphology. A testable biogeographic hypothesis is proposed to account for the diversification of midwife toads in Iberia and the Balearics. The postulated underlying geological changes were the spread of inland saline lakes that divided Iberia (16 mY B.P.), the emergence and break-up of the Betic orogen (14 mY), and the formation of the Betic Strait (8 mY). Dispersal over sea channels or during the Messinian Crisis (6 mY) are deemed unlikely on the basis of ecological and biogeographical data.

W. Maier

PHYLOGENY AND ONTOGENY OF MAMMALIAN MIDDLE EAR STRUCTURES by W. MAIER (Institute of Systematic Zoology, University of Tübingen, Auf der Morgenstelle 28, D-7400 Tübingen, Federal Republic of Germany) ABSTRACT The evolution of the mammalian middle ear in connection with the change of the

Serkan Gül, Bilal Kutrup and Nurhayat Özdemir

Introduction With 901 species and 47 genera (AmphibiaWeb, 2011), the tree frog family Hylidae is one of the most species-rich families of amphibians. The phylogeny and taxonomy of hylids has been addressed in several recent studies, including those by Faivovich et al. ( 2005 ), Wiens


Future, not fallacy

Annemarie Verkerk

the resulting Indo-European phylogeny. The first fallacy they find is Bouckaert et al.’s failure to distinguish innovations from retentions. Bouckaert et al.’s method probabilistically identifies innovations in a dataset that contains both innovations and retentions, but P & L argue that this is


REFERENCES Almeida, J., Rocheta, M., Galego, L. 1997. Genetic control of flower shape in Antirrhinum majus. Development 124: 1387-1392. Applequist, W.L., Wallace, R.S. 2002. Phylogeny of the Madagascan endemic family Didiereaceae. Plant Syst. Evol. 221: 157-166. Baur, E. 1933