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Victor D. Boantza and Leslie Tomory

1 Introduction
 In the early 1740s, the British physician and natural philosopher William Brownrigg (1711–1800) read a series of papers to the Royal Society of London in which he presented a fully developed theory of pneumatic chemistry, claiming the existence of various kinds of permanently

Marco Beretta

’s correspondence, a body of texts which illustrates important aspects and hitherto unknown episodes of eighteenth-century astronomy, pneumatic chemistry, the European trade of scientific instruments, industrial espionage, and the history of the complex sociability laying behind rising scientific networks. The nine

Corinna Guerra

indeed, especially if one thinks that only a few gaslight lamps have survived in our towns, perhaps in memory of former times, when pneumatic chemistry seemed to hold the answer to the question of how to prolong daylight. According to Tomory, who bases his study on Joel Mokyr’s model – a model

Marco Beretta

when dealing with 18th century chemistry and, more specifically, with an author such as Joseph Black, who published very little but was unanimously recognized by his contemporaries as the father of pneumatic chemistry. The relevance of the documentary history of science clearly emerges in the

The Uses of Humans in Experiment

Perspectives from the 17th to the 20th Century


Edited by Erika Dyck and Larry Stewart

Scientific experimentation with humans has a long history. Combining elements of history of science with history of medicine, The Uses of Humans in Experiment illustrates how humans have grappled with issues of consent, and how scientists have balanced experience with empiricism to achieve insights for scientific as well as clinical progress. The modern incarnation of ethics has often been considered a product of the second half of the twentieth century, as enshrined in international laws and codes, but these authors remind us that this territory has long been debated, considered, and revisited as a fundamental part of the scientific enterprise that privileges humans as ideal subjects for advancing research.

John C. Powers

speculative theories (or “hypotheses”). Boantza demonstrates this well in a chapter on Priestley’s pneumatic chemistry, where he teases out the structure of Priestley’s experimental method against the criticisms of Lavoisier (and some modern historians) that his work was a “train of experiments, not much

Pneumatic Chemistry 303–331
 Victor D. Boantza and Leslie Tomory
 Situating Kant’s Pre-Critical Monadology: Leibnizian Ubeity, Monadic Activity, and Idealist Unity 332–349
 Edward Slowik
 Book Reviews
 Marco Beretta, Francesco Citti, Alessandro Iannucci (eds.): Il culto di Epicuro. Testi, iconografijia e

John G. McEvoy

present the theoretical principles of chemistry, but also to provide an experimental method for how to generate principles in a still unfinished discipline. Focusing on three important eighteenth-century topics covered in Elementa , Powers explores Boerhaave’s relation to pneumatic chemistry, the

Gregory Lynall

hermeticist Thomas Vaughan) 31 which diagnosed the pursuit of pneumatical chemistry as a kind of enthusiasm. The “deep-seated affinity” Edmund Burke felt for Swift is well known, 32 and in his Reflections upon the Revolution in France (1790) he replicates the Tale ’s pneumatical metaphors to characterize