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Václav Čermák, Václav Čermák, Paulo Vieira, Václav Čermák, Paulo Vieira, Mária Čudejková, Václav Čermák, Paulo Vieira, Mária Čudejková, Vladimir Gaar, Václav Čermák, Paulo Vieira, Mária Čudejková, Vladimir Gaar, Kateřina Tománková, Václav Čermák, Paulo Vieira, Mária Čudejková, Vladimir Gaar, Kateřina Tománková, Kateřina Mikušková, Václav Čermák, Paulo Vieira, Mária Čudejková, Vladimir Gaar, Kateřina Tománková, Kateřina Mikušková, Jonathan D. Eisenback, Václav Čermák, Paulo Vieira, Mária Čudejková, Vladimir Gaar, Kateřina Tománková, Kateřina Mikušková, Jonathan D. Eisenback and Manuel Mota

NCBI, which confirmed the morphological attribution. While both 18S and 28S displayed 100% similarity with other isolates of this species, the ITS rDNA sequence obtained for the specimens associated with peat-growing substrate displayed several point mutations in both ITS1 and ITS2 regions (Fig. 1

Géraldine Anthoine and Didier Mugniéry

order to identify the false root-knot nematode, Nacobbus aberrans , a nematode of quarantine importance, investigations were undertaken at the molecular level. Study of the ITS rDNA region among six South American populations showed an extremely high polymorphism. This polymorphism is due to point

Ilan Levin, C.H. Ric de Vos, Yaakov Tadmor, Arnaud Bovy, Michal Lieberman, Michal Oren-Shamir, Orit Segev, Igor Kolotilin, Menachem Keller, Rinat Ovadia, Ayala Meir and Raoul J. Bino

Fruit constitutes a major component of our diet, providing fiber, vitamins, minerals, and many phytonutrients that promote good health. Fleshy fruits such as tomatoes already contain high levels of several of these ingredients. Nevertheless, efforts have been invested in increasing and diversifying the content of phytonutrients, such as carotenoids and flavonoids, in tomato fruits. These efforts rely on transgenic approaches, and the use of single-point mutations and/or quantitative trait loci affecting levels of these phytonutrients. The tomato high pigment (hp) mutations are a good example of the latter alternative. Due to their impact on fruit lycopene content, hp mutations were already introgressed into elite tomato germplasm. Interestingly, plants carrying these mutations are also characterized by higher levels of other health-promoting metabolites, such as flavonoids and vitamins. These mutations were initially marked as lesions in structural genes of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway. However, recent studies have shown that they represent mutations in two regulatory genes active in light signal transduction, also known as photomorphogenesis. This gene-identification has created a conceptual link between photomorphogenesis and biosynthesis of fruit phytonutrients, and suggests that manipulation of the light signal transduction machinery in plants may be an effective approach towards practical manipulation of fruit phytonutrients.

Amalia Abudy, Tali Sufrin-Ringwald, Cathy Dayan-Glick, Dana Guenoune-Gelbart, Orna Livneh, Michele Zaccai and Moshe Lapidot

During the year 2002, two new diseases with unknown etiologies were detected in cucurbit crops in Israel. One disease was detected in squash fields throughout the country, while the second appeared in a single watermelon plot in the south, just outside the city of Elat. The infected watermelon plot was eradicated, but nonetheless the new disease spread throughout the country and today it is present in all the watermelon production areas. Both diseases were associated with elevated whitefly populations. Indeed, it was found that both are transmitted only by whiteflies, and are incited by two begomoviruses. Both viruses were cloned and sequenced, and were identified as Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) and Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV). The host range of the Israeli WmCSV isolate (WmCSV-IL) was determined and resembles the host range of the three other known WmCSV isolates (from Yemen, Sudan, and Iran), but with a few differences. Although no genetic resistance to WmCSV was observed in cultivated watermelon [Citrullus lanatus (Thunb.) Matsum. & Nakai], resistance to the virus was found in a wild relative, colocynth (Citrullus colocynthis (L) Schrader). Nucleotide sequence comparisons revealed that WmCSV-IL is highly homologous to other WmCSV isolates, with the highest homology (nearly identical) to the isolate from Sudan. SLCV-IL host range was determined as well, and was also found to be similar to other SLCV isolates. However, following genome sequencing, it was found that due to two separate point mutations, two viral open reading frames (ORF) were altered. The AC2 ORF was extended by 129 nucleotides, while the BV1 ORF was reduced by 99 nucleotides.

Clifford F. Weil and Rita-Ann Monde

-scale discovery of induced point mutations with high-throughput TILLING. Genome Res. 13: 524-530. Till, B. J., Reynolds, S. H., Weil, C., Springer, N., Burtner, C., Young, K., Bowers, E., Codomo, C. A., Enns, L. C., Odden, A. R., Greene, E. A., Comai, L., Henikoff, S. 2004. Discovery of induced point

Matthew W. Blair, Timothy Porch, Karen Cichy, Carlos H. Galeano, Patricia Lariguet, Clive Pankhurst and William Broughton

., Young, K., Taylor, N. E., Henikoff, J. G., Comai, L., Henikoff, S. 2003. Large-scale discovery of induced point mutations with high-throughput TILLING. Genome Res. 13: 524-530. Till, B. J., Reynolds, S. H., Weil, C., Springer, N., Burtner, C., Young, K., Bowers, E., Codomo, C. A., Enns, L. C

Ilan Paran, Yelena Borovsky, Saadia Nahon and Oded Cohen

., Greene, E. A., Codomo, C. A., Enns, L. C., Johnson, J. E., Burtner, C., Odden, A. R., Young, K., Taylor, N. E., Henikoff, J. G., Comai, L., Henikoff, S. 2003. Large-scale discovery of induced point mutations with high-throughput TILLING. Genome Research 13: 524-530. Venkataiah, P., Christopher, T

Danny Barash, Johannes Sikorski, Elizabeth B. Perry, Eviatar Nevo and Evgeny Nudler

, F.J., Henkin, T.M. 1998. The S box regulon: a new global transcription termination control system for methionine and cysteine biosynthesis genes in Gram-positive bacteria. Mol. Microbiol. 30: 737-749. Hall, B.G. 1990. Spontaneous point mutations that occur more often when advantageous than

Liang Chi, Xiaofeng Sun, Ming Zou and Huanqi Liu

reported that E/MC1R is located on chromosome 11 (Kerje et al., 2003 ). A phenotypic classification analysis using a three-generation pedigree showed that MC1R mutations are associated with plumage color in chicken (Kerje et al., 2003 ). A point mutation causing replacement of glutamate with lysine was

Abbas Mohammad Deimi, Jingwu Zheng, Vladimir N. Chizhov and Sergei A. Subbotin

terminal loop T8 was observed in sequence EF088930. Helix H4 (Figs 2A, 3A) was observed in D. mycelio- phagus only. Eight locations with point mutations ob- served at least in two studied sequences were found in the ITS1 without the helix H9 for D. destructor. Six types of helix H9 differing in base