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Kate Arnold and Andrew Whiten

POST-CONFLICT BEHAVIOUR OF WILD CHIMPANZEES (PAN TROGLODYTES SCHWEINFURTHII) IN THE BUDONGO FOREST, UGANDA by KATE ARNOLD 1) and ANDREW WHITEN 2) (Scottish Primate Research Group, School of Psychology, University of St Andrews, St Andrews, Fife, KY16 9JU, Scotland) (Acc. 17-IV-2001) Summary

Christine E. Webb and Peter Verbeek

unexplored. In particular, conflict and post-conflict behaviours represent a social domain in which stable individual or ‘personality’ differences have rarely been a focus. When it comes to research across species, this trend is particularly evident in reconciliation behaviour. Conflict, a pervasive and

Zanna Clay and Frans B.M. de Waal

(de Waal, 1987, 1992; Manson et al., 1997 ; Hohmann & Fruth, 2000 ; Palagi et al., 2004 ), although various post-conflict behaviours are used in primates and other animals (e.g., de Waal, 1989; Fraser et al., 2008 ). For instance, chimpanzees reconcile primarily using embrace, kissing, ‘finger in

Yuko Ikkatai, Shigeru Watanabe and Ei-Ichi Izawa

). Oxford University Press , Oxford , p.  608 - 625 . Aureli F. van Schaik C.P. ( 1991 ). Post-conflict behaviour in long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ): II. Coping with the uncertainty . — Ethology 89 : 101 - 114 . Aureli F. van Schaik C.P. van Hooff J

Zanna Clay and Frans B.M. de Waal

Abstract

Sexual contacts are thought to play an important role in regulating social tension in bonobos (Pan paniscus), and are especially common following aggressive conflicts, either between former opponents or involving bystanders. Nevertheless, research on the factors determining post-conflict sexual contacts, their effectiveness in reducing social tension and the nature of post-conflict sexual behaviour is scarce. Here, we collected data on post-conflict affiliative contacts in bonobos occurring between former opponents (reconciliation) and offered by bystanders towards victims (consolation) to investigate the role of sexual contacts in the regulation of aggressive conflicts compared to non-sexual affiliation behaviours. We tested whether post-conflict sexual contacts: (1) alleviate stress, (2) confer reproductive benefits, (3) mediate food-related conflict and (4) repair valuable social bonds. Thirty-six semi-free bonobos of all ages were observed at the Lola ya Bonobo Sanctuary, DR Congo, using standardized Post-Conflict/Matched Control methods. Consolation and reconciliation were both marked by significant increases in the occurrence of sexual behaviours. Reconciliation was almost exclusively characterized by sexual contacts, although consolation was also characterized by increases in non-sexual behaviours, such as embrace. Adults were more likely to engage in post-conflict sexual contacts than younger bonobos. Consistent with the stress-alleviation hypothesis, victims receiving sexual consolatory contact showed significantly lower rates of self-scratching, a marker of stress in primates, compared to receiving non-sexual contact. Post-conflict sexual contacts were not targeted towards valuable social partners and they did not confer obvious reproductive benefits; nor were they used to mediate food-related conflicts. Overall, results highlight the role of sex in regulating tension and social conflicts in bonobos.

Gabriele Schino

, 1992), to my knowledge no quantitative study has yet been published on post- conflict behaviour in a nonprimate. This is all the more surprising, consid- ering that reconciliation has been hypothesised to occur widely in species with individualised cooperative relationships (de Waal, 1989), and that

Nahoko Tokuyama and Takeshi Furuichi

. Cozzolino R. Cordischi C. Scucchi S. ( 1992 ). Kin-oriented redirection among Japanese macaques: an expression of a revenge system? — Anim. Behav. 44 : 283 - 291 . Aureli F. van Schaik C.P. ( 1991 a). Post-conflict behaviour in long-tailed macaques ( Macaca fascicularis

Sonja Koski, Elisabeth Sterck, Han de Vries and Saskia van den Tweel

multidimensionality of primate conflict resolution. Keywords : chimpanzee, post-conflict behaviour, reconciliation, further aggression, third-party affiliation. 2) Corresponding author’s address: Department of Behavioural Biology, Utrecht University, P.O. Box 80086, 3584 CH Utrecht, The Netherlands, e-mail: koski

Gabriele Schino, Filippo Aureli and Luca Rosati

systematic comparison of the post-conflict behaviour of different species dates back to the pioneering work of Thierry (1985, 1986) and has shown reliable and consistent interspecific differences. These differences have been related to the patterns of dominance such that species charac- terised by more

Hans C. Veenema, Jan A.R.A.M. Van Hooff, Filippo Aureli and Carel J. Van Panthaleon Van Eck

et at., in prep.). References ALTMANN,J. (1974). Observational study of behavior: sampling methods. - Behaviour 49, p. 227-266. AURELI, F. (1992). Post-conflict behaviour among wild long-tailed macaques (Macaca fas- cicularis). - Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 31, p. 329-337. ---, COZZOLINO, R., CORDISCHI