availability related to environmental temperature and precipitation. For example, gut morphology can change seasonally in the common frog ( Rana temporaria ) in accordance with the periods of high feeding activity (Juszczyk et al., 1966 ). Likewise, Naya et al. ( 2003 ) reported a seasonal variation in the
al. 2014 ; Lempereur et al. 2015 ). While temperature and photoperiod determine annual growth cycles in temperate and boreal climates, and temperature is considered the main environmental factor influencing the onset of xylem growth after winter dormancy in cold climates, precipitation becomes
International Water Law Series publishes scholarly and other expert work on the increasingly important field of international freshwater law. Fresh water shared by two or more states, whether in the form of surface water or groundwater, is in growing demand as populations increase and economic activities such as agriculture and hydroelectric power production continue to develop. In addition, climate change is already bringing with it challenges to the established order, including a spectrum of problems ranging from droughts, glacial melting and reduced precipitation to floods and other water-related disasters caused by increasingly extreme climatic events. Works in this series will address these problems, proposing carefully-considered methods of dealing with them, where appropriate.
Recent tree-ring studies in Mongolia provide evidence of unusual warming that is in agreement with large-scale reconstructed and recorded temperatures for the Northem Hemisphere and the Arctic. The Mongolian proxy record for temperature extends back over 450 years and is an important addition to the global tree-ring database. Precipitation reconstructions based on tree rings reflect recent increases but show that the increases are within the long-term range of variations. There is evidence for quasi-solar periodicity in long-term reconstructed precipitation variation, also shown by previous studies. Mongolia has excellent sampling resources for future studies.
Instrumental records were used to assess the interannual variability of precipitation for the greater Asian monsoon region (50°N-15°S, 60°E-150°E). Correlation analysis shows intriguing teleconnections between subtropical and midlatitude precipitation regions. Principal components analyses show that ENSO (EI Niño-Southern Oscillation) is the dominant factor associated with recent interannual variation of precipitation in the region. The strongest relationships between ENSO and boreal summer precipitation were found in subtropical regions, as weIl as North Central China and southeastern Kazakhstan; boreal winter precipitation in the tropics and subtropics also exhibited strong relationships with ENSO. Scenarios for reconstructing spatial and temporal patterns of Asian monsoon precipitation variation were generated by selecting individual records based on 1) correlation with regional time series and 2) length of record. Spatial patterns were highly dependent on the type of record selected; however, temporal patterns were reasonably weIl reproduced regardless of station selection criteria. The implication of the latter result is that the dominant modes of boreal summer and winter precipitation for East Asia might be reconstructed using relatively few sites.
Siberian larch (Larix sibirica) trees were studied in a drought-stressed, lowe-levation Taiga forest in the Altay Mountains for their potential to be used for reconstructing precipitation. A climate/growth analysis provided evidence that the tree-ring widths were strongly determined by the climatic conditions from May to July, positively by precipitation and negatively by temperature. Nevertheless, the resulting regional tree-ring chronology of Siberian larch offers only a limited possibility to perform reliable reconstructions of precipitation as only 30.8% of the total variation of the actual April–July precipitation was explainable. Drought events reflected by the chronology were compared with historical records and other tree-ring derived climate reconstructions, showing some common events of climate extremes over much of Central Asia. This new Siberian larch chronology and an earlier maximum latewood density (MXD) chronology from the neighboring region reveal that the local climate is mainly characterized by cold/wet and warm/dry situations over the past 251 years. This study demonstrates that the use of both tree-ring width and MXD data may increase information of past climate variability in the Altay mountain region.
Several plant communities in central Panama, each community located near a weather station, contain trees with annual growth rings, i. e. Cordia alliodora, Pseudobombax septenatum, and Annona spraguei. Tree-ring data are particularly valuable when concomitant weather information is readily available. Patterns of growth for the above species of trees were investigated across central Panama in relation to climate. A linear aggregate climate model was fitted to chronologies of each species at three sites along a rainfall gradient. Comparisons were made among sites to help explain how climate influences tree growth within central Panama.
NOTES AND NEWS CONSEQUENCES OF EXCEPTIONAL PRECIPITATION ON THE BRINE SHRIMP ARTEMIA AND COPEPOD POPULATIONS IN THE SALTWORKS OF SÈTE-VILLEROY (LANGUEDOC, FRANCE) BY ALAIN THIÉRY1), DANIELLE DEFAYE2) and CAROLINE MARTIN1) 1) Laboratoire de Biologie Animalc-Hydrobiologie, Faculté des Sciences
NOTES AND NEWS CONSEQUENCES OF EXCEPTIONAL PRECIPITATION ON THE BRINE SHRIMP ARTEMIA AND COPEPOD POPULATIONS IN THE SALTWORKS OF SÈTE-VILLEROY (LANGUEDOC, FRANCE) by ALAIN THIÉRY), DANIELLE DEFAYE) and CAROLINE MARTIN) 1) Laboratoire de Biologie Animale-Hydrobiologie, Faculté des Sciences