Proportions ofaxial elements without any spatial contacts with rays were investigated. Non-contact rates between rays and fusiforrn initials or axial parenchyma strands were examined in tangential sections of cambial or axial parenchyma zones in 21 hardwood species . The noncontact rates were very different among species, ranging from 0% to 76%. Serial trans verse sections of xylem were used to deterrnine the non-contact rates between rays and wood fibers in 3 of the 21 hardwood species having high non-contact rates of parenchyma strands . The noncontact rate of wood fibers was 49% in Albizia julibrissin (non-storied cambium), 30% in Paulownia tomentosa (non-storied cambium), and 52% in Pterocymbium beccarii (storied cambium). Tangential seetions of three softwood species, Pinus thunbergii, Cryptomeria japonica, and Chamaecyparis obtusa were used to investigate the contacts between rays and tracheids. All tracheids in the three species had contact with at least one ray, ranging from 1 to 15 rays.
Pinus radiata D. Don (radiata pine) wood can develop a wood quality defect called ‘intra-ring checking’ (checks) during kiln drying. A study was conducted to examine if rays and resin canals were the initiation sites of checks, and if the presence of the rays and resin canals increased the susceptibility of radiata pine wood to checking. The structural features associated with checking were observed in images of thirteen oven-dried radiata pine disks. Six of the sixty checks observed were associated with rays and resin canals. It is clear from the observations that rays and resin canals could not be the primary sites for check development. A comparative study showed some differences between the checked and non-checked wood with respect to rays and resin canals. Checked wood showed a higher amount of tissue area occupied by rays than the nonchecked wood. Hence, it is possible that rays can influence the tendency of wood to check. Such a relationship was not seen with respect to resin canals. However, a difference in the arrangement of resin canals was observed between checked and non-checked wood. Checked wood showed a scattered arrangement of resin canals, while the non-checked wood showed a linear arrangement.
This bibliography, the first volume in the new
Conrad Studies series published in cooperation with
The Joseph Conrad Society (UK), collects and annotates impressions and memories of Joseph Conrad by his family, friends, and acquaintances. It covers full length memoirs as well as newspaper and magazine articles, and in its wide sweep offers abundant details about the novelist’s personality and life. Of particular value is Martin Ray’s emphasis on difficult-to-trace items and the in-depth coverage of Conrad’s trip to the United States in the spring of 1923. An essential tool for the scholar, this book can also be read with pleasure for the light it throws on Conrad the man.
“The books are true while reality is lying…” Championing the popular Fantasy genre on the same terms as its readers, Rayment casts a critical eye over the substance and methods of political critique in the Fantasy novels of Terry Pratchett, Philip Pullman and China Miéville. Ranging across subjects as diverse as exquisite fundamentalism and revolutionary trains, encountering pervert-priests, dwarf hermaphrodites and sex-scarred lovers and pondering the homicidal tendencies of fairy tales and opera,
Fantasy, Politics, Postmodernity develops a theoretically wide-ranging and illuminating account of how the novels of these writers do and do not sustain politically insightful critique of the real world, while bringing intellectual and ethical concerns to bear on the popular Fantasy form.
(naṣṣ) du Ḳurʾān ou du ḥadīt̲h̲. Bien que parfois utilisé pour un avis sur une question spécifique du droit (pour lequel ḳawl est plus courant), raʾy désigne le plus souvent l’ensemble des avis émis par un juriste particulier (par ex. le raʾy d’Abū Ḥanīfa) ainsi que le raisonnement servant à déduire ces
[English Version] Ray, Satyajit (2.5.1921 Kalkutta, Indien – 23.4.1992 ebd.). R. übernahm als 20jähriger eine Werbeagentur, bevor er an der von R. Tagore geleiteten Hochschule »Shantiniketa« Kunst studieren konnte. Bereits der erste Film, »Pather Panchali« (1955), war ein Welterfolg. Er bildet den
Migration and Islamic Ethics, Issues of Residence, Naturalization and Citizenship addresses how Islamic ethical and legal traditions can contribute to current global debates on migration and displacement; how Islamic ethics of muʾakha, ḍiyāfa, ijāra, amān, jiwār, sutra, kafāla, among others, may provide common ethical grounds for a new paradigm of social and political virtues applicable to all humanity, not only Muslims. The present volume more broadly defines the Islamic tradition to cover not only theology but also to encompass ethics, customs and social norms, as well as modern political, humanitarian and rights discourses. The first section addresses theorizations and conceptualizations using contemporary Islamic examples, mainly in the treatment of asylum-seekers and refugees; the second, contains empirical analyses of contemporary case studies; the third provides historical accounts of Muslim migratory experiences.
Contributors are: Abbas Barzegar, Abdul Jaleel, Dina Taha, Khalid Abou El Fadl, Mettursun Beydulla, Radhika Kanchana, Ray Jureidini, Rebecca Gould, Said Fares Hassan, Sari Hanafi, Tahir Zaman.
ray initials of some tropical trees. Flora 1988 181 425 134
Sledge W.A. The rooting of woody cuttings considered from the stand point of anatomy. J. Pomol. Hort. Sci. 1930 8 1 22
Zimmermann M.H. Brown C.L. Trees—Structure and function. Springer New York 1971 336
quotations from English literature via the pages of Johnson’s Dictionary , it would seem that he gained many of his examples of English sayings and proverbs from the pages of John Ray’s Compleat Collection of English proverbs . To be precise, from the third edition of 1737 , or as Halbertsma puts it the