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Fawcett, Ngaboyamahina, Rosenbaum, Ndagijimana, Vecellio and Stoinski

Patterns of male reproductive behaviour in multi-male groups of mountain gorillas: examining theories of reproductive skew T.S. Stoinski 1,2,3) , S. Rosenbaum 1) , T. Ngaboyamahina 1) , V. Vecellio 1) , F. Ndagijimana 1) & K. Fawcett 1) ( 1 The Dian Fossey Gorilla Fund International, 800

Julia Ostner and Oliver Schülke

cooperation and affiliation to variation in within group contest competition borrowing some but not all arguments from the PvS model and its description (van Schaik et al., 2006). We use a different concept of contest competition potential; we consider the reproductive skew predicted by the priority of access

N.K. Thavarajah, M. Fenkes and T.H. Clutton-Brock

sexes that are often retained offspring and contribute towards cooperative activities (Clutton-Brock et al., 2002 ). There are high levels of reproductive skew, as the dominant female monopolises breeding (Clutton-Brock et al., 2001 ) through a combination of aggression through dominance assertion and

Martin Reichard, Carl Smith and Mara Casalini

Sciences of the Czech Republic, Kvˇetná 8, 603 65 Brno, Czech Republic) (Accepted: 11 April 2010) Summary Female density and resource availability are two key variables that shape mating systems. Theory predicts that reproductive skew will amplify with increased male density and de- creasing availability

Fritz Trillmich, Gesine Brandtmann and Massimo Scandura

to females. Genetic analyses of maternity using microsatellite length polymorphism at Ž ve loci showed a reproductive skew between females in a harem. Additionally, it proved brood mixing in aquaria as well as in the Ž eld. Brood mixing can be detrimental to female breeding success through interbrood

Laurie Kauffman, Erin Ehmke, Steven Schet, Arioene Vreedzaam and Sue Boinski

avoidance. Dispersal patterns among male Saimiri are constrained by mate competition and the consequent reproductive skew, in ad- dition to enhanced predation risk during dispersal forays. Little evidence, however, suggests that relative to familiar landscapes, exploitation of novel ranging areas

Jan Komdeur

.L. (1987). Helping and communal breeding in birds. — Princeton University Press, Princeton, New Jersey. 1682 Komdeur Cant, M.A. & Johnstone, R.A. (1999). Costly young and reproductive skew in animal soci- eties. — Behav. Ecol. 10: 178-184. Clutton-Brock, T.H. (1998). Reproductive skew, concessions and

Ning Li, Tomohiro Takeyama, Lyndon Alexander Jordan and Masanori Kohda

, 2009 ). In the last three decades, reproductive skew models insist that male–male relationships, in the form of either male control of other males, equality among males or tug-of-war between dominants and subordinates over reproduction may play an important role for the formation cooperative breeding

Alexander V. Georgiev, Diana Christie, Kevin A. Rosenfield, Angelina V. Ruiz-Lambides, Elizabeth Maldonado, Melissa Emery Thompson and Dario Maestripieri

group, despite decades of research effort by multiple observers (Higham & Maestripieri, 2010 ). This is puzzling because, while reproductive skew among male rhesus macaques is lower than in other polygynandorus primates, high rank augments male reproductive output (Dubuc et al., 2011 , 2014a

Antje Girndt, Rüdiger Riesch, Christiane Schröder, Ingo Schlupp, Martin Plath and Ralph Tiedemann

regarding the individual paternal descent of each embryo (fig. 3). When comparing individual male’s relative contribution against an assumed even contribution of all males siring equal numbers of offspring ( i.e ., a ‘fair raffle scenario’; Parker, 1990 ; Neff and Wahl, 2004 ), a high reproductive skew