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very vague. Thus, following Davis (1995), we redefine emphatics as being specified with retracted tongue root feature [ RTR ]. 2 Emphatics in Arabic are defined as being primarily articulated at a certain point in the vocal tract along with a secondary articulation targeting the back of the tongue

In: Brill's Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics

resyllabication, Najdī Sinai Arabic resyllabification → resyllabication retention Analogy Retracted Tongue Root Vowel Backing retraction of the tongue root Interface Linguistics retrieval Language Loss, Slips of the Tongue retroflex Arabic Alphabet for Other Languages, Creole Arabic, Horn of Africa

harmony ( TRH ), in which the harmonizing vowels are distinguished by the position of the tongue root, with one member in each pair being pronounced with “retractedtongue root, while the other member is pronounced with “non-retracted” or “advanced” tongue root. The vowels pronounced with retracted

In: International Journal of Eurasian Linguistics

. High vowels, therefore, are specified with th and completed with the gesture [high]; vowels specified for tr and completed with the [ rtr ] gesture are low because a retracted tongue root lowers the body of the tongue ( Purnell and Raimy, 2015 : 534). Because th refers to whether the tongue is

In: Journal of Language Contact

Mongolic as well (not in Kalmyk/Oirat, which continues to be described as possessing a true front/back-based system). The authors offer a rich array of data and come to the conclusion that rtr (Retracted Tongue Root) harmony systems are to be reconstructed for the three proto-languages mentioned in the

In: Journal of Language Contact

Semitic are most likely to be specified as [+RTR], that is, exhibiting ‘retracted tongue root’ (Halle 1992:209) and bearing secondary pharyngealization, as in Arabic (using the superscript siglum ‘ ʕ ’). It is possible, however, that the emphatic consonants were glottalized, as in Ethiopic (and marked

In: Brill's Journal of Afroasiatic Languages and Linguistics

[ɔ]. High vowels /i/ and /u/ are also + ATR , while low vowel /a/ is + RTR (Retracted Tongue Root). To summarise the environments in which – ATR mid-vowels appear: stem-finally ✓ [ˈtinrɔ] ‘sleep

In: A Grammar of Makasar