at guiding public policy-making for coastal and ocean management. Today, much of this large volume of information is accessible through numerous communication methods. Recently, improving information flow at the science-policyinterface has become a priority in the urgent need to achieve sustainable
tackle the challenges arising in the implementation of the outcomes of the previous major summits on sustainable development. 2 The summit had acknowledged the need to ‘facilitate informed policy decision-making on sustainable development issues’ by strengthening the science-policyinterface ( spi ). 3
biodiversity loss by 2010 . This article describes the main decision adopted by COP 9 on biofuels, marine biodiversity, biodiversity and climate change, access and benefit-sharing and the science-policyinterface of international biodiversity politics. Keywords Biofuels, Biological Diversity, CBD, Climate
The scientific assessments of the Arctic Council (AC) have been widely regarded as the most effective products of the AC. Yet, so far comparatively little scholarly attention has been given to this primary area of the Council’s work. This paper examines the most recent assessment work within the Arctic Council. In order to do this, we build on the literature on global environmental assessments to analyze whether this work exhibits design features and is carried out in a way that enhances the potential for AC assessments to be effective. We understand the effectiveness of assessments to influence decision and policy-making in the Arctic Council itself, but we also look beyond its structures. This paper focuses on four case studies: Arctic Biodiversity Assessment (ABA), Arctic Human Development Report-II (ADHR-II), Arctic Resilience Report/Arctic Resilience Assessment (ARR/ARA) and Adaptation Actions for a Changing Arctic (AACA). Whereas detailed examination of such influence is at this point not possible due to either very short time from their completion (ABA, ADHR-II) or the fact that the projects are still ongoing (ARA, AACA), the analysis of those assessments through the lens of a series of their design features provides us with some guidance in relation to their expected effectiveness in bridging science with decision-making in the AC and beyond. The article finds that whereas different processes exhibit different individual characteristics, all the studied assessments rank from relatively high to very high in terms of how their design may affect their salience, credibility and legitimacy. However, their actual policy influence will depend first and foremost on the political will of those ordering the assessments and wielding decision-making power in the Arctic Council.
The COVID-19 crisis has shown how countries initially responded to a global challenge on their own, instead of relying on a multilateral science diplomacy — based response. Although, science diplomacy has received great attention for the past decade, its meaning and the nature of the diverse practitioners involved remain elusive. Science diplomacy is a transboundary field sitting across national borders, policy frameworks and stakeholders of all natures and professional backgrounds. But what is a science diplomat? What science diplomacy roles formally exist? Who can become a science diplomat? What knowledge and skills are required? This practitioner’s essay proposes a typology of science diplomacy practitioners who bring science, technology, innovation, foreign policy and the international political system altogether closer in either institutionalised or non-institutionalised roles, and it also provides guidance for pursuing a career in science diplomacy. These science diplomats may promote national competitiveness but also facilitate multilateral responses to global challenges.
themes include the application of ecological economics, sustainable tourism considerations, protecting marine species at risk, the mitigation and regulation of ocean noise, the use of information and knowledge at the science–policyinterface for ICOM , and addressing climate change impacts on the world
? Critical Issues and the Path Forward,” in MacDonald et al. (eds.), supra note 2, 447–463. 15 Heilman, supra note 5 above; De Santo, id.; S.S. Soomai, “The Science–PolicyInterface in Fisheries Management: Insights about the Influence of Organizational Structure and Culture on Information Pathways
establish a science-policyinterface that is more responsive to global problems and a diplomatic corps that is increasingly able to interface with scientific evidence. Examples might include revising departmental policy on the promotion and tenure metrics to reflect time spent on public engagement, science
. There is also much progress to be made in developing curricula that respond to the actual needs of ocean affairs, including the reinforcing of the science–policyinterface. Many gains could also be achieved through the establishment of a standardized academic accreditation in ocean affairs, which would
stakeholders in the process; strengthening the science-policyinterface for setting goals; and making decision-making more evidence-based. 6 As far as implementation of this decision is concerned, it should be noted that by Resolution 67/203 of 21 December 2012 the un General Assembly launched the