This study sheds light on how international sanctions have affected the scientificcommunity of Iran. As defined by Davis and Engerman, “sanctions are unilateral or ‘collective action against a state considered to be violating international law’ designed ‘to compel that state
The Uphill Emergence of ScientificCommunities in Africa* JACQUES GAILLARD and ROLAND WAAST** ABSTRACT The increasing concern African decision-makers and international funding agencies feel for scientific research in Africa and its impact on development has led to the establishment of several
millennium, the ability to send an email was taken for granted in the scientificcommunities of Europe and North America. Since ict s are now a prerequisite for participation in the international scientific workspace, and since the scientificcommunities of low-income countries were significantly
community, and they alone, share. Conversely, it is their possession of a common paradigm that constitutes a scientificcommunity of a group of otherwise disparate men.” He also offered a further clarification. He (Kuhn, 1977 , 297) stated, “. . . but less confusion will result if I instead replace it
Communitarian approaches as exemplified in the works of Alasdair MacIntyre (in political philosophy), Amitai Etzioni (in sociology), Martin Kusch (in philosophy of science) and Lynn Hankinson Nelson (in feminist studies) have gained increasing importance in recent decades. This development is not without problems, however, as the essay attempts to demonstrate in relation to current communitarian approaches in science, where the works of Thomas Kuhn have been influential. Kuhn argues that progress in science takes place against the background of a community, sustained by strongly shared practices, beliefs and standards. Whilst this explains the persistence and continuity of communities, it cannot fully explain how change within a community occurs or how differences between communities are resolved. This contribution tries to overcome this problem in Kuhn’s work by arguing in favour of an alternative conception which recognises the heterogeneous character of scientific communities. More specifically, the essay argues that the beliefs and standards that the members of the community hold are an outcome of complex negotiation processes which are constantly evaluated rather than in a state of constant, static equilibrium as implied by Kuhn. Further, it argues that a coherent and adequate understanding of diversity and change within a community is essential for a satisfactory representation of interaction across communities.
in journals accepted by the international scientificcommunity.
Ralph W. Hood Jr., previous editor of APR , has written a Commentary on all contributions to the issue. Hood is a well-respected and knowledge able researcher in the ‘spirituality’ field and his Commentary undoubtedly contributes
CHIARA GIUNTINI UniversitÃ � di Udine DANIEL J. KEVLES, The physicists: the history of a scientificcommunity in modern America, Cambridge (MA), Harvard University Press, 1995 (ed. orig. 1977), 489 pp.
VINCENZO BARONE UniversitÃ � di Torino KOSTAS GAVROGLU, Fritz London: a scientific