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Jacques Gaillard and Roland Waast

The Uphill Emergence of Scientific Communities in Africa* JACQUES GAILLARD and ROLAND WAAST** ABSTRACT The increasing concern African decision-makers and international funding agencies feel for scientific research in Africa and its impact on development has led to the establishment of several

Wesley Shrum, Antony Palackal, Dan-Bright Dzorgbo, Paul Mbatia, Mark Schafer and Paige Miller

millennium, the ability to send an email was taken for granted in the scientific communities of Europe and North America. Since ict s are now a prerequisite for participation in the international scientific workspace, and since the scientific communities of low-income countries were significantly

Amedeo Giorgi

community, and they alone, share. Conversely, it is their possession of a common paradigm that constitutes a scientific community of a group of otherwise disparate men.” He also offered a further clarification. He (Kuhn, 1977 , 297) stated, “. . . but less confusion will result if I instead replace it

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Ipek Demir

Abstract

Communitarian approaches as exemplified in the works of Alasdair MacIntyre (in political philosophy), Amitai Etzioni (in sociology), Martin Kusch (in philosophy of science) and Lynn Hankinson Nelson (in feminist studies) have gained increasing importance in recent decades. This development is not without problems, however, as the essay attempts to demonstrate in relation to current communitarian approaches in science, where the works of Thomas Kuhn have been influential. Kuhn argues that progress in science takes place against the background of a community, sustained by strongly shared practices, beliefs and standards. Whilst this explains the persistence and continuity of communities, it cannot fully explain how change within a community occurs or how differences between communities are resolved. This contribution tries to overcome this problem in Kuhn’s work by arguing in favour of an alternative conception which recognises the heterogeneous character of scientific communities. More specifically, the essay argues that the beliefs and standards that the members of the community hold are an outcome of complex negotiation processes which are constantly evaluated rather than in a state of constant, static equilibrium as implied by Kuhn. Further, it argues that a coherent and adequate understanding of diversity and change within a community is essential for a satisfactory representation of interaction across communities.

Elena Mirskaya

© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2007 DOI: 10.1163/156914907X253198 PGDT 6 (2007) 557-566 www.brill.nl/pgdt Perspectives on Global Development and Technology P g d t National Scientific Communities in the Globalized World: Global ICTs as a Tool of Modernization among the Russian Academic

Pär Salander

in journals accepted by the international scientific community. Ralph W. Hood Jr., previous editor of APR , has written a Commentary on all contributions to the issue. Hood is a well-respected and knowledge able researcher in the ‘spirituality’ field and his Commentary undoubtedly contributes

VINCENZO BARONE

CHIARA GIUNTINI Università � di Udine DANIEL J. KEVLES, The physicists: the history of a scientific community in modern America, Cambridge (MA), Harvard University Press, 1995 (ed. orig. 1977), 489 pp. VINCENZO BARONE Università � di Torino KOSTAS GAVROGLU, Fritz London: a scientific

RAJINDER SINGH

of London. He made his name in the scientific community by constructing an instrument to produce electromagnetic waves of short wavelength. Later he worked on plant physiology. For demonstration as well as research purposes he constructed many instruments. These are discussed, together with accounts

Charles H. Davis and Thomas Owen Eisemon

Universities and Scientific Research Capacity* THOMAS OWEN EISEMON** and CHARLES H. DAVIS*** ABSTRACT The role of universities and scientific communities in the development of science and technology in Asia and Africa is critically examined. Four different configurations of universities in the