Separatism is a breakaway movement either politically or ecclesiastically. In French séparatisme also denotes the separation of church and state. Politically, separatism involves the efforts to detach a state or a federation of states and either to make them independent or to incorporate them into
[German Version] The term separatism describes political and religious phenomena. In its political sense, separatism is understood to be the secession of a state or a political group with the aim of joining another group or becoming independent. Examples are the efforts of the Rhineland occupied
forms in which fascism and National Socialism became intertwined with Moravian separatism, and traces their development. A comparative framework for the whole issue is also provided.
The issue of separatist tendencies within Moravian fascism and National Socialism has not been analyzed by historians
Conflict resolution in South Asia* KINGSLEY M. DE SILVA University of Peradeniya, Sri Lanka and International Centre for Ethnic Studies, Kandy and Colombo, Sri Lanka (Received 19 March 1993; accepted 29 September 1993) Key words: conflict, ethnicity, nationalism, refugees, religion, separatism
In the understanding of many both within and outside Ukraine, the Donbas is the stronghold of Russian separatism. It is widely believed to be similar to the Crimea, where ethnic Russians account for the majority of the population. True, they were the largest minority in this Ukrainian land
Russian Military Intelligence on Asia: Archives, 1620-1917
Russian Military Intelligence on Asia: Archives, 1620-1917 collection gathers the holdings of the Russian State Military History Archive (RGVIA) in Moscow for nine countries:
• The Far Eastern Threat – Confronting China, Japan, and Korea
• The Eastern Question – Confronting Turkey, Palestine, Arabia, and Syria
• The Great Game – Confronting Persia and Afghanistan
The Far Eastern Threat – Confronting China and Japan While Imperial Russia never formally went to war with China, tsarist interest in its vast Far Eastern neighbor increased during the 19th century, as the decline of the Qing dynasty offered tempting opportunities for expansion. Furthermore, because of Russia’s long history of informal relations, its citizens were in a singularly favorable position to study regions of China that were entirely inaccessible to other Europeans. The
Far Eastern Threat collection comprises broader military, political, economic, ethnographic, and geographical studies, as well as valuable primary documents about the annexation of the Amur and Ussuri regions, the Ili Crisis, the Sino-Russian alliance, and concessions in Manchuria.
The Eastern Question – Confronting Turkey During the last two centuries of its existence, the Russian Empire clashed with Turkey no less than eight times; one of these conflicts was the disastrous Crimean War. Known to Victorian England as “The Eastern Question,” these confrontations were a major feature of the era’s great power struggle. The Russian general staff gathered an enormous mass of data about its Ottoman adversary, which are grouped in the
Eastern Question component of the
Russian Military Intelligence on Asia collection. Comprising more than 1,000 separate files, the archive includes classified attaché and diplomatic reports on Turkish politics, British influence, the organization and condition of the Turkish army, the defenses of the Bosporus and the Dardanelles Straits, as well as nationalist revolts in the Balkans and elsewhere. There are also over 500 maps, plans, diagrams, and other illustrations.
The Great Game – Confronting Persia The 18th and 19th centuries saw Russia go to war with Persia four times. While tsarist ambitions focused largely on the Caucasus, London came to fear grander designs in a rivalry for dominion over Asia that they dubbed “the Great Game.” The
Great Game collection includes close to 200 maps. The texts range from surveys of political, economic, and military developments, to Armenian separatism and Russian military assistance to the Persian army.
Classified Because the collection was classified as either “Secret” or “For Internal Use Only,” and was published in only a small print run, there are no complete collections available abroad, and even the holdings of Russia’s leading libraries are often wanting. The
Russian Military Intelligence on Asia collection therefore makes available for the first time this valuable resource to the scholarly community worldwide.
cent of the country’s total land area and 90 per cent of China’s border regions. 4 They therefore have an importance far beyond what such basic demographic data would suggest. The issues of Han–ethnic minority relations and ethnic separatism, if not carefully managed, in fact hold the potential to
ON BALLiCHi SEPARATISM VAHE BOYAJlAN Yerevan 0.1. Amongst the Iranian peoples and ethnic formations a highly important place is occupied by the Baluchis, due to their ancient and specific culture, rich historical background and because of their political weight in the ethnic mosaic of the
British government to achieve a certain goal has been a thorny issue being argued and counter-argued by scholars dealing with the history of British India. Nevertheless, what almost everybody agrees on is that 1857 marked the beginning of Muslim separatism in the Indian Subcontinent.
As a matter of fact