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Introduction Between 1932 and the end of the Second World War, the Japanese Government and the Japanese Imperial Army forced over 200,000 women into sexual slavery in rape centres throughout Asia. These rape centres have often been referred to in objectionably euphemistic terms as “comfort

In: The Korean Journal of International and Comparative Law
Author: Iris Haenen

the three former leaders of the Armed Forces Revolutionary Council (AFRC), the Trial Chamber of the SCSL held that these forced marriages amounted to sexual slavery. 3 The Appeals Chamber reversed this conclusion and wrote legal history by holding that forced marriage is in fact a distinct and unique

In: International Criminal Law Review

. E 418/4. 1 Introduction This article seeks to analyse and theorize whether acts of forced conjugal association are best captured under the descriptive label of forced marriage as an ‘other inhumane act’, or sexual slavery, the broader specie of slavery or its variants. 1 The

In: International Criminal Law Review
Author: Akane Onozawa

Since VAWW-NET JAPAN, the forerunner of VAWW RAC, was established in 1998, we have contested the hegemonic ‘comfort women’ discourse perpetuated by historical revisionists in Japanese politics, bureaucracy, academics, business, media and grassroots. By sharing with the conference delegates our long-term empirical research as an active transnational feminist movement based in the perpetrator country, VAWW RAC will seek to promote a better understanding of the universal nature and particular aspects of the ‘comfort women’ system. This chapter will discuss the relationship between Japan’s pre-war licensed prostitution and wartime sexual slavery. By explaining why Japan’s licensed prostitution was sexual slavery, I will argue that Japan’s peace-time sex-slave system, which was widespread even to Japanese communities in its neighbouring countries, was developed into the more brutal military ‘comfort women’ system. It will also introduce the reason why former Japanese ‘comfort women’ have yet to come forward.

In: Sexuality, Oppression and Human Rights
Author: Jana Arsovska

European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, Vol. 14/2, 161–184, 2006 © Koninklijke Brill NV. Printed in the Netherlands. Jana Arsovska* Understanding a ‘Culture of Violence and Crime’: the Kanun of Lek Dukagjini and the Rise of the Albanian Sexual-Slavery Rackets 1

In: European Journal of Crime, Criminal Law and Criminal Justice
Author: Sara Wharton

* Doctoral candidate, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK Abstract Th e Special Court for Sierra Leone has been noted for becoming the fi rst international court to convict accused of the crimes of sexual slavery, the use of child soldiers, ‘forced marriage’, and intentionally directing attacks against

In: International Criminal Law Review

nding is legally and factually unsound. Th e Chamber’s decision off ends the principle of legality, specifi cally, non-retroactivity, the prohibition on analogy, and the require- ment of specifi city. In addition, the Chamber misconstrued the facts and law with regards to sexual slavery in distinguishing

In: International Criminal Law Review

Since VAWW-NET JAPAN, the forerunner of VAWW RAC, was established in 1998, we have contested the hegemonic ‘comfort women’ discourse perpetuated by historical revisionists in Japanese politics, bureaucracy, academics, business, media and grassroots. By sharing with the conference delegates our long-term empirical research as an active transnational feminist movement based in the perpetrator country, VAWW RAC will seek to promote a better understanding of the universal nature and particular aspects of the ‘comfort women’ system. This chapter will historically contextualise our historic battle against the Japanese patriarchal structure as embodied by the importance of the emperor and the ultimate triumph of transnational activism which culminated in The Women’s International War Crimes Tribunal 2000.

In: Sexuality, Oppression and Human Rights

Since VAWW-NET JAPAN – the forerunner of VAWW RAC was established in 1998 – we have contested the hegemonic ‘comfort women’ discourse perpetuated by historical revisionists in Japanese politics, bureaucracy, academics, business, media and grassroots. By sharing with the conference delegates our long-term empirical research as an active transnational feminist movement based in the perpetrator country, VAWW RAC seeks to promote a better understanding of the universal nature and particular aspects of the ‘comfort women’ system. This chapter addresses our current struggle against the pervasive nature of historical revisionism gaining momentum under the ultranationalist leadership of Prime Minister Shinzo Abe. His patriarchal nationalism symbolized by the Hashimoto controversy claiming that ‘comfort women’ were a necessary evil, has been attempting to erase the war memory of ‘comfort women’ not only from the history textbooks, but from society as well. We strongly hope that our chapter will contribute to restoring the justice and dignity that the aging survivors deserve.

In: Sexuality, Oppression and Human Rights
Editors: Helen Durham and Tracey Gurd
Challenging the perception that women are exclusively the victims, the caregivers or the passive supporters of men in times of armed conflict, Listening to the Silences: Women and War exposes the reader to a diversity of women’s voices. These voices, both personal and academic, demonstrate that women are increasingly taking on less ‘traditional’ roles during war, and that these roles are multifaceted, complicated and sometimes contradictory.
The experiences of a judge, forensic anthropologist, survivor of sexual slavery, soldier, activist, journalist, humanitarian worker and others provide the reader with the opportunity to consider the depth of women’s involvement in armed conflict. Their voices highlight the fact that the international community at large has historically failed to listen to women, even as they have tried to tell their own individual tales of horror, heroism, courage, devastation, betrayal, violence and integrity during armed conflict. Concurrently the book examines in detail the legal infrastructure in this area, including debates on the adequacy of international law; developments in jurisprudence and the implementation of international resolutions.
This book reveals that responses to women’s requirements during times of war will continue to be inadequate so long as we persist in silencing these differing perspectives and fail to take account of women’s dynamic and changing needs during war.
Listening to the Silences: Women and War is a collection of women’s voices, each of which makes a unique contribution to a topic that is gathering international momentum and interest.
The perspectives of these women greatly enhance our understanding of the gendered dimensions of armed conflict - they help to move the discourse beyond silence and towards inclusion, greater understanding and peace.