Colonial Latin America was famed for the precious metals plundered by the conquistadores and the gold and silver extracted from its mines. Historians and economists have attempted to determine the amount of bullion produced and its impact on the colonies themselves and the emerging early-modern world economy. Using official tax and mintage records, this book provides decade-by-decade and often annual data on the amount of gold and silver officially refined and coined in the treasury and mint districts of Spanish and Portuguese America. It also places American bullion output within the context of global production and addresses the issue of contraband production and bullion smuggling. The book is thus an invaluable source for evaluating the rise of the early-modern economy.

, there may be methodological applications that could be relevant to other areas as well. The primary motivation for contact over such a vast distance was economic, and the main objects that were traded were light and portable luxury items, namely silver and textiles. The motifs that were transmitted via

In: Medieval Encounters
Author: SHEN Bojun

The royal courts of the Yuan and early Ming period pursued a paper currency policy and prohibited silver from being circulated by royal decree. But the uses of silver in daily life and commercial activities could be often seen in the fictions and operas of this era. This is an active reflection of social life of that time, and indicates that the binding force of the royal decrees over the subjects was rather limited. From this we can see that it may not be reliable to take the circulation of silver in fictions as a ground to prove that Outlaws of the Marsh was completed in the first years of Emperor Jiajing’s reign (Jiajing Huangdi 嘉靖 皇帝 CE 1522–1566). The difference between the royal laws and decrees and their effects on real life deserve more analyses by researchers.

In: Frontiers of Literary Studies in China