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Abstract

Social Impact Assessment is in general used in connection with larger mineral extraction projects in Greenland. Such assessments are not part of the environmental impact assessments, and different authorities are involved.

Recent amendments of the relevant legislation have strengthened the quality of the mineral extraction legislation. However, the legal framework and its implementation still leave a lot to the discretion of the Government and could be improved.

In: The Yearbook of Polar Law Online

What will take place in the Arctic in the next decade will have consequences for us all, as the changing of the “Albedo effect” is altering the global climate, disrupting many equilibria both in the ecosystem and in the social sphere. Changes in the Arctic will not stay in the Arctic, but will affect the rest of the planet. The need to exploit resources, the emergence of new actors in the Arctic and the discovery of abundant oil, gas, mineral and renewable energy resources mean that we have to literally rethink and reconstruct the “Arctic” as a concept. Huge promises are made, but big questions are also raised about how we are to rethink and regulate our “blue planet.” A new regulatory framework is thus inevitable. This article deals with the social aspects of the climate change’s effects and the understanding of human adaptation to climate change by explaining how the problem of exploration and exploitation of oil and gas and their use by indigenous people are strictly interconnected with Social Impact Assessment (SIA) and environmental protection. The article focuses on the social dimension of climate change coupled with business development of oil and gas firms in the Arctic with Greenland as a case study to illustrate opportunities and tensions affecting the indigenous Greenlandic people. Some conclusions are drawn with the formulation of recommendations on the urgent need for direct participation of Arctic indigenous people in the decision-making policy creation on environmental protection measures and culture and advice on how to implement such recommendations. A solution to implement such recommendation would be to develop an interdisciplinary research programme to be implemented through an interdisciplinary research centre susceptible to be turned into an international organization after a certain period of working activity at the academic level.

In: The Yearbook of Polar Law Online

as environmental impact assessment ( eia ), and social license to operate ( slo ) received through using the means of social impact assessment ( sia ). The legislation and practical application of these processes is analysed in order to shed light on the shortcomings of current regulations

In: Nordic Journal of International Law

, according to their own traditions, in any investment or development project within their lands; b) the sharing of reasonable benefits with these communities in each project; and c) the elaboration of a prior and independent environmental and social impact assessment. Before entering

In: International Journal on Minority and Group Rights
Author: Yixin Xu

implementation rules of forest carbon projects in China are limited to the assessment of environmental impacts and do not include social impact assessment ( sia ). 119 Both eia and sia should be compulsory for forest carbon projects to ensure environmentally and socially sustainable results. Regarding

In: Climate Law
The Yearbook of Polar Law, is based at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Law at the University of Akureyri in Iceland and the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law (Arctic Centre/University of Lapland) in Finland and covers a wide variety of topics relating to the Arctic and the Antarctic. These include:
- human rights issues, such as autonomy and self-government vs. self-determination, the rights of indigenous peoples to land and natural resources and cultural rights and cultural heritage, indigenous traditional knowledge,
- local, national, regional and international governance issues,
- environmental law, climate change, security and environment implications of climate change, protected areas and species,
- regulatory, governance and management agreements and arrangements for marine environments, marine mammals, fisheries conservation and other biological/mineral/oil resources,
- law of the sea, the retreating sea ice, continental shelf claims,
- territorial claims and border disputes on both land and at sea,
- peace and security, dispute settlement,
- jurisdictional and other issues re the exploration, exploitation and shipping of oil, gas and minerals, bio prospecting,
- trade law, potential shipping lines through the northwest and northeast passages, maritime law and transportation law, and
- the roles and actual involvement of international organizations in the Polar Regions, such as the Arctic Council, the Antarctic Treaty System, the European Union, the International Whaling Commission, the Nordic Council, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United Nations, as well as NGOs.

While some of the articles are submitted directly to the Yearbook, others are based on presentations made at the Sixth Symposium on Polar Law that was held in Akureyri, Iceland, in October 2013.
The Yearbook of Polar Law, is based at the Faculty of Social Sciences and Law at the University of Akureyri in Iceland and the Northern Institute for Environmental and Minority Law (Arctic Centre/University of Lapland) in Finland and covers a wide variety of topics relating to the Arctic and the Antarctic. These include:
- human rights issues, such as autonomy and self-government vs. self-determination, the rights of indigenous peoples to land and natural resources and cultural rights and cultural heritage, indigenous traditional knowledge,
- local, national, regional and international governance issues,
- environmental law, climate change, security and environment implications of climate change, protected areas and species,
- regulatory, governance and management agreements and arrangements for marine environments, marine mammals, fisheries conservation and other biological/mineral/oil resources,
- law of the sea, the retreating sea ice, continental shelf claims,
- territorial claims and border disputes on both land and at sea,
- peace and security, dispute settlement,
- jurisdictional and other issues re the exploration, exploitation and shipping of oil, gas and minerals, bio prospecting,
- trade law, potential shipping lines through the northwest and northeast passages, maritime law and transportation law, and
- the roles and actual involvement of international organizations in the Polar Regions, such as the Arctic Council, the Antarctic Treaty System, the European Union, the International Whaling Commission, the Nordic Council, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and the United Nations, as well as NGOs.

This is the fifth volume of The Yearbook of Polar Law. Its contents is derived from the presentations made at the Fifth Symposium on Polar Law that was held in Rovaniemi, Finland, in September 2012.

2014. In March 2016, the Polish government decided to scale up logging activities in the Białowieża forest without sufficient previous environmental and social impact assessments on the unique nature of the forest, according to environmental groups. Eventually in June 2016, the European Commission

In: International Community Law Review
Author: H.D. Smith

, and social impact assessment (Figure 2). At sea, management emphasis remains very much along the lines of individual sea-use groups. In navigation the main decision-makers are the port authorities, acting both individually and in concert through the "Memorandum on Port State Control". There are

In: International Journal of Estuarine and Coastal Law
Author: H.D. Smith

social impact assessment (Figure 2). At sea, management emphasis remains very much along the lines of individual sea-use groups. In navigation the main decision-makers are the port authorities, acting both individually and in concert through the "Memorandum on Port State Control". There are national

In: International Journal of Estuarine and Coastal Law