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Roslyn Dakin, Jenny Q. Ouyang, Ádám Z. Lendvai, Mark F. Haussmann, Ignacio T. Moore and Frances Bonier

R.A. ( 1997 ). Begging the question: are offspring solicitation behaviours signals of need? — Trends Ecol. Evol. 12 : 11 - 15 . Leech S.M. Leonard M.L. ( 1996 ). Is there an energetic cost to begging in nestling tree swallows ( Tachycineta bicolor )? — Proc. Roy. Soc

Tore Slagsvold and Thomas Drevon

When and from whom do female pied flycatchers ( Ficedula hypoleuca ) solicit copulations Thomas Drevon & Tore Slagsvold 1) (Department of Biology, University of Oslo, P.O. Box 1066, Blindern, N-0316 Oslo, Norway) (Accepted: 6 July 2005) Summary We studied female copulation solicitation in the

Thomas Hibbs and Stacey Hibbs

questionable whether he would have performed the deed without the solicitations of the weird sisters or the urging of his wife. Clearly this has something to do with the sympathy we feel for Macbeth at the outset of the play. Because we too are susceptible to temptation, his fate warns us of the frailties of

Yasuyuki Muroyama

"soliciting" behaviour, which was also noted. "Soliciting" is defined here as presenting the neck, face, rump, dorsum, ventrum or flank, or as lying down in front of the individual from which a monkey solicits grooming (OKI & MAEDA, 1973). If a grooming or soliciting was observed between a dyadic pair, one

Yasuyuki Muroyama

allomothering in patas monkeys (Erythrocebus patas). Six adult females in one group were observed during the non-birth season (no infants) and the birth season when three females had given birth to an infant. During the non-birth season the exchange of grooming and soliciting for it indicated reciprocity

Sofia Schembari and Marina Cords

accordingly on fine temporal or spatial scales (Noë, 2017). A male should reject a female solicitation if he can obtain a ‘better deal’ from a different partner, which will depend on his options (Hammerstein & Noë, 2016). The number of fertile females in the group thus has the potential to interact with other