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Adam I. Cooper

1. Introduction Sonorant consonant syllabicity has long been a prominent feature of reconstructed PIE phonology (Osthoff 1876, Brugmann 1876, Cuny 1912, Meillet 1937, Saussure 1995; et al.). More striking than the prominence of this straightforward and economical reconstruction is

Nicholas Zair

1 Introduction Proto-Indo-European had a class of sonorant consonants consisting of two liquids /l/ and /r/, two nasals /m/ and /n/ and two glides /w/ and /j/. In general, in the relevant contexts, these tend to pattern as a group. Thus, for example, they have in common the trait

Remco Knooihuizen

vocabulary of the 19th century local dialect of Scots English . Since it is unlikely that these words had an entirely unique phonetic character, preaspiration (including sonorant devoicing) must have been a general feature of 19th century Shetland English. The crucial question is then whether this was in

Laurent SAGART

identical to that of the Chinese of that time, as are those of Vietnamese, Burmese, and Proto-Hmong-Mien: three contrasting tones on words ending in vowels and sonorants (semi-vowels, nasals, liquids) while words ending in oral stops do not show any tonal contrasts. The origin of the three-tone contrast was

Parallels in Semitic Linguistics

The Development of Arabic la- and Related Semitic Particles



This linguistic study is concerned with the role of the emphasizing particle la- (known as lām al-ta'kīd) in the grammatical traditions of Classical Arabic, as well as with the question of the historical relationship connecting this particle to a set of elements in several other Semitic languages showing comparable forms and functions. Although these particles have hitherto seemed to defy a coherent reconstruction, the very complexity of the data to which they attest proves to provide a key to their interpretation. They represent a critical first step in the refining of our understanding of the history of the Semitic sonorant phonemes.


Adam Cooper

In Reconciling Indo-European Syllabification, Adam Cooper brings together two seemingly disparate phenomena associated with Indo-European syllable structure: the heterosyllabic treatment of medial consonant clusters, which tolerates CVC syllables, and the right-hand vocalization of sonorants, which ostensibly avoids them. Operating from a perspective that is simultaneously empirical, theoretical, and historical in nature, he establishes their compatibility by crafting a formal analysis that integrates them into a single picture of the reconstructed system.

More generally, drawing on evidence from Vedic, Greek, and Proto-Indo-European itself, Cooper demonstrates the continued relevance of the ancient Indo-European languages to contemporary linguistic theory, and, moreover, reaffirms the value of the syllable as a unit of phonology, necessary for these languages’ formal representation.


Martin Joachim Kümmel

much too unclear. 3 3 Indo-Uralic? Implosives and Sonorants On Indo-Uralic in general cf. Kortlandt 2002, 2004; Klingenschmitt 2005: 114–116; Hyllested 2009ab; Kloekhorst 2008b; Kümmel fthc.; Kassian, Zhivlov & Starostin 2015. 3.1 Stops in PIA / PIE / CIE To assess the potential relationship to Uralic