The stateofnature is one of Thomas Hobbes’s most powerful and enduring theoretical legacies. It has been recognized as a forerunner of rational choice theory and has been revived recently by moral philosophers in a purely ahistorical form. Perhaps it has had its greatest impact on
1 Introduction Hobbes is usually read as an abstract political philosopher, and with good reason: this is the most impressive part of his theory. But he wrote far more on practical aspects of maintaining commonwealths, minimizing disorder, and averting a stateofnature. Addressing Hobbes
normatively attractive account of how political order is possible. He starts with plausible anthropological premises and then formulates a solution to the problem of how humans can transcend the stateofnature and establish a state. Not only does this solution lend itself to being formulated in game
to receive from many modern commentators, were to a large extent caused by these two elements of his theory. Hobbes’s claim that the stateofnature is a general state of war has earned him the dubious reputation of embracing an unduly pessimistic view of human nature. His claim that human beings
Grotiana sympo- sium concerned with situating and evaluating the work of Vattel, of our contribution to Th e Philosophy of International Law , ed. by S. Besson and J. Tasioulas (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2010), pp. 33-51. Th e StateofNature and Commercial Sociability in Early Modern International
his own comparative-historical precepts. He showed a way out of the traditional debate about the nature of the stateofnature, but remained himself trapped in it. The remainder of this article develops this interpretation of Maine’s thesis that ‘war is as old mankind but peace is a modern invention
examine what it is, what things it includes, what rights it gives rise to and how it is extended in the transition from the stateofnature to civil society. I then briefly point out that bringing this concept back to the fore could help to illuminate the current discussion on the foundations of basic
In his seminal work on social contract theory, Leviathan, Thomas Hobbes described the anarchic pre-societal condition of the state of nature. In this predicament – aptly named as ‘the war of all against all’ – people lived poor, short and brutish lives. The dystopian world simulated in the survival horror game DayZ mirrors this natural state of man. The game invites players to roleplay survivors of a zombie apocalypse. The present chapter examines the factors contributing to the pervasive violence, moral ambiguity and degeneration of human condition, which are all prominent features of DayZ’s gameplay. The article will situate DayZ into the context of a Hobbesian state of nature and explicate elements that render this hypothetical condition perpetual.
* The author wishes to kindly thank Guus van Nifterik (University of Amsterdam) for his comments and suggestions, and Heta Björklund for her kind assistance and editorial prowess.
Benjamin Straumann, Roman law in the stateofnature. The classical foundations of Hugo Grotius’ natural law