1 Introduction Studies focused on spontaneous forms of students’ participation in science classroom discourse are very unusual in Latin America. I will describe some historical elements from the international context, in order to analyze the possible reasons for this fact. Then I will review some
; Wolters, 2004 ). Patrick et al. (2007) noted that the development of a mastery-oriented classroom could encourage students to have a greater desire for self-improvement:
Conveying support and promoting respect among students will contribute to an environment in which students can focus on understanding
E-books are regarded as a new kind of digital reading product or learning tool for young people and students (Terpend, Gattiker, and Lowe 2014 ). Therefore, higher education institutions are spending increasing amounts of money on the provision of e-books for use by
The names of 2280 persons who were active in the University of Paris during the period 1480-1515 are revealed in this volume (Latin text, with English Introduction, annotations, and 8 indexes). They were recording their academic credentials. We learn, for most of them, their geographical orgins, college affiliations, teachers, students, social connections, and graduate studies after taking the Master of Arts degree. The book therefore provides a previously unavailable look into the workings of the University of Paris' Faculty of Arts, its 25 active colleges, and into an important cadre of persons at northern Europe's most prestigious university who became actors, whether individually or as an elite group, in the intellectual and religious ferment that has been traditionally known as the Renaissance and Reformation in France.