mus- cles are functional during atmospheric respiration, in which the suprabranchial organs are used. KEY WORDS: catfish, Clariidae, ontogeny, myology, operculum, suspensorium, respiration. INTRODUCTION The suspensorium and the opercular system are known to play an important role in the respiratory
WORDS: cichlids, suction feeding, hyoid, suspensorium, head, morphospace, optimality model. INTRODUCTION The power and movements required for suction feeding in fish are provided by complex chains of muscles, ligaments and skeletal elements (for cichlids: ANKER, 1978a; BAREL, 1983; OTTEN, 1983). Using a
FORM-RELATIONS IN THE CONTEXT OF CONSTRUCTIONAL MORPHOLOGY: THE EYE AND SUSPENSORIUM OF LACUSTRINE CICHLIDAE (PISCES, TELEOSTEI) WITH A DISCUSSION ON THE IMPLICATIONS FOR PHYLOGENETIC AND ALLOMETRIC FORM-INTERPRETATIONS by C. D. N. BAREL (Research-Group Ecological Morphology, Zoölogisch
cephalic skeletal structures between settling larvae and adults living on the reef. Variations were studied in the suspensorium, the opercle, the mandible, the premaxillary bone and the teeth. Comparisons of the feeding apparatus enabled two different types of feeding to be distinguished in adults: suction
- genetic relationships between the austroglanidids and the other catfishes. Our observations, compar- isons, and bibliographical overview revealed only two Austroglanidae autapomorphies, namely: 1) the peculiarly shaped, posteriorly bifurcated sesamoid bone 1 of the suspensorium; and 2) the markedly broad
pseudoteguminal arms. He further proposed the new term, trulleum, for the often sclerotized, basin-shaped sclerite hinged to the distal (dorsal) end of the juxta. I have redefined the suspensorium as the basally broad, V to U- shaped (viewed dorsally), largely membranous structure immediately dorsad of the
The difference between the larvae of Eurypharynx pelecanoides and Saccopharynx ampullaceus, both belonging to the suborder Saccopharyngoidei (formerly Lyomeri), does not consist only of different numbers in myomeres but also of the structure of the suspensorium of the lower jaw. In E. pelecanoides it consists of two separate bones, the hyomandibulare and the quadratum. According to Orton (1963) in S. ampullaceus the suspensorium consists of only one piece of bone.
similar pattern characterized as follows: a. Opening and closing of the mouth precede abduction and adduction of the suspensorium, respectively. b. The depression and elevation of the tongue and the laterally and medially directed movements of the hyoid run synchronously with suspensorial abduction and
criterium, follows each description. The mechanical interpretation of the described features is based on their shape, size and structure plus a notion of the biologically relevant kinetics or kinematics of the construction to which they belong, e.g. abduction of the suspensorium for suction. Little
inclined at 45° to the horizontal plane enabled the simultaneous registration of lateral and ventral aspects.
526 Fig. 1. Mechanisms involved in respiration. A. Lateral view; surface layer, circumorbitals removed. The suspensorium is connected to the neurocranium at two points, the palatine (A) and the