STRESSES IN LEG TENDONS OF BIRDS by G. VAN SNIK1, M. OLMOS2, A. CASINOS2* and J.A. PLANELL3 (1 Department of Experimental Animal Morphology and Cell Biology, Agricultural University, Marijkeweg 40, 6709 PG Wageningen, The Netherlands, 2 Department of Animal Biology (Verte- brates), University
LENGTH RANGE, MORPHOLOGY AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF RAT GASTROCNEMIUS MUSCLE DURING ISOMETRIC CONTRACTION AT THE LEVEL OF THE MUSCLE AND MUSCLE TENDON COMPLEX. by P. A. HUIJING and R. D. WOITTIEZ (Department of Functional Anatomy, Interfaculty of Physical Education, Free University, Postbus
BRIDGES BETWEEN MICROTUBULES AND DESMOSOMES IN THE TERMINAL FILAMENT-CUTICLE CONNECTION AND IN THE MUSCLE-CUTICLE CONNECTION (TENDON CELL) OF THE COLORADO BEETLE (LEPTINOTARSA DECEMLINEATA SAY) by H. A. AKSTER and W. A. SMIT (Zoological Laboratory, University of Amsterdam, the Netherlands
directly perturb vision (see Milgram, 1987 ). Also, two high intensity tendon vibrators were used to directly perturb proprioceptive feedback (see Roll et al ., 1989 ), although such manipulations were implemented using a relatively novel approach. Tendon vibration has been used to directly perturb
position on the left side). (F) Disposition of the anterior cloacal retractor passing dorsal to the cloacal chamber and the origin of the ischiocaudalis tendon (superficial muscles dissected). Abbreviations as follows = H: hemipenis; Is: ischium; IC: ischiocaudalis; ILC: Iliocaudalis; PC: precloacal glands
articulation, the itts sclerite, and the tendons originating from the proximal rim of the tarsus (bearing the tarsal muscles); on this issue a functional model is presented. Most importantly, the eﬀ ects of the tarsal muscles are being modulated with the status of itts (expanded or bent underneath). Keywords
an elastic proteinaceous material (e.g., resilin pad in fleas); no such mechanism could be detected in Tanycypris . However, there is a possibility of energy-storage in tendon-like structures, which have been reported to connect caudal rami muscles to the posterior end of the caudal rami attachment
In the Colorado Beetle, the terminal filament cells resemble the epidermal cells which connect muscle cells with the cuticle, the so-called tendon cells. They contain many microtubules which have projections interconnecting them. The microtubules are also connected by these projections to desmosomes.
The tunica propria is a basement membrane-like layer of low elasticity. It separates the terminal filament from the germarium. The outer ovariole sheath is a muscle sheath which is continuous with the muscle sheath around the oviducts. The whole muscle sheath consists of a monolayer network. Sarcolemmal invaginations at the I band and at the Z line probably form part of one T system. The cuticle of the common oviduct has scales with long caudally directed spines.
The rostral attachment of the muscle sheath corresponds to the existing descriptions of tendon cells. The attachment of the muscle sheath to the cuticle of the common oviduct is different.