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The Baltic Sea

New Developments in National Policies and International Cooperation

Edited by Renate Platzöder and Philomène Verlaan

Recent developments have produced fundamental and far-reaching changes in the sovereignties bordering the semi-enclosed area of the Baltic Sea.
This book presents a comprehensive and balanced codification of issues and views, focusing on new developments in the Baltic Sea Area with specific reference to the UNCLOS 1982 Convention, the particular marine uses of the Baltic Sea, and national views and interests of the bordering states and third parties. It deals with matters such as the Kiel Canal, delimitation, dispute settlement and navigation, shipping, the ecosystem, fisheries, and scientific research.
The Baltic Sea is the outcome of a European Workshop on the Law of the Sea co-sponsored by the Law of the Sea Institute (University of Hawaii), the William S. Richardson School of Law (University of Hawaii) and the Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik (Research Institute for International Affairs) in Ebenhausen (Germany). This workshop is the first in a series designed to illuminate major issues in ocean law and policy which require attention on the national, regional, and global levels.
This book provides a useful basis for the consideration and further discussion of those interested in the sea and the environment, helping academics and policy-makers alike not only ascertain but also understand objectives and concerns underlying the states of the region and the reaction of other states and the international community as a whole.

Justyna Wubs-Mrozewicz

did not exist as such in earlier times. 1 In such an understanding, the sixteenth-century case involving a city (Danzig, now Gdańsk), a state (the Habsburg Netherlands) and seven Hollandish salt ships trying to stay aloof from a war in the Baltic would sink unnoticed in the vast sea of research on

The Discovery of the Baltic

The Reception of a Catholic World-System in the European North (AD 1075-1225)


Nils Blomkvist

Nils Blomkvist discusses how the Baltic Rim was initially Europeanized between 1075 and 1225 AD. He compares the indigenous civilisations to the prevailing western European one. After the expansive Viking period, European penetration became a process of discovery.
The importance of the Catholic Reform movement and its unintentional ties to the formation of an endurable commodity market are outlined. Clashes and compromises are investigated in case studies of the Kalmarsund region, Gotland and the Daugava valley. Dissimilar cases of state formation are compared: those of Sweden and Livonia.
Many classical scholarly problems are revisited. A new approach to the period's narrative sources brings to life Scandinavian, German, Russian, Finno-Ugrian and Baltic attitudes and day-to-day concern in the midst of a change of epic dimensions.

Rose Cross over the Baltic

The Spread of Rosicrucianism in Northern Europe


Susanna Åkerman

This volume is a study of Rosicrucianism in the early period of the seventeenth century with emphasis both on the local reception of the Rosicrucian pamphlets in the Baltic area and on the original group of Rosicrucian authors in Tübingen.
In the first part of the book the Runic theosophy of the Swedish Rosicrucian Johannes Bureus is studied in its millenarian context, beginning with his Adulruna Rediviva of 1616. The Paracelsian prophecy of the Lion of the North is also shown to be a Rosicrucian theme.
The general millenarian background to the Rosicrucian publications is then explored and implications are drawn from the Rosicrucian doctrine of the great conjunctions, from the emergence of new stars, and from their comet research.

Bart Driessen

113 Slav non-citizens in the Baltics BART DRIESSEN * Received 16 August 1993; accepted 17 March 1994 Abstract. This study argues that customary international law obliges the Baltic states to accept the Slav populations as an integral part of the Baltic peoples. The history and collapse of the


Edited by David J. Smith

With EU and NATO membership for the Baltic States now a reality, this volume examines the relationship of the three countries, their constituent peoples and their surrounding region to the wider Europe, both historically and in the period since 1991. In particular, the contributors seek to locate the Baltic area within the manifold debates surrounding the concepts of “new” and “old” Europe, including those occasioned by the current conflict in Iraq. Covering issues of identity, sovereignty, minority rights, security and relations with Russia the work assesses the likely contribution of this region to an enlarged Euro-Atlantic community. It will appeal to specialists and students in the fields of area studies, history, politics and international relations.


Iben Fonnesberg-Schmidt

The Popes and the Baltic Crusades examines the extension of the crusading idea from the Holy Land to the Baltic region. Highlighting the interplay between canon law, missionary ideas and politics, it shows how papal policy on the campaigns against the pagan peoples of north-eastern Europe developed from Pope Eugenius III’s proclamation of a crusade against the Slavs in 1147 to the end of Innocent IV’s pontificate in 1254. It also discusses the interaction between Rome and the princes and bishops of the Baltic region and demonstrates how these local leaders influenced papal crusading policy. The volume shows the variety of the crusading movement of the central Middle Ages and offers a contribution to the ongoing debate about the nature and definition of crusading.


David J. Galbreath, Ainius Lašas and Jeremy W. Lamoreaux

Continuity and Change in the Baltic Sea Region uncovers the Baltic States’ foreign policy transition from Socialist Republics to EU member-states. Situated between the Russian Federation and Northern Europe, Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania have had to manoeuvre within an often delicate sub-region. Since independence, the foreign policies of the Baltic States have been dominated by de-Sovietization and European integration. Lying at the crossroads between small state theory and identity politics, this analysis engages with the development of Baltic foreign policies as post-Soviet, small and transitioning states.
The authors argue that Estonia, Latvia and Lithuania dictated their early foreign policy agendas based on a process of identity construction and as a response to their regional environment. This process took the Baltic States from East to West in their foreign policy aspirations. Key factors in foreign policy making and implementation are discussed, as well as external factors that shaped Baltic foreign policy agendas. Overall, the book illustrates how continuity and change in the Baltic foreign policies has been shaped by both ‘hard’ and ‘soft’ factors. It is a study in the foreign policies of transitioning states and in this regard illuminates a much larger research area beyond its geographic focus.


Rick Derksen

Like its Slavic counterpart (2008), the Etymological Dictionary of the Baltic Inherited Lexicon aims at combining recent insights from comparative Indo-European linguistics with modern Balto-Slavic accentology. While the Lithuanian lexicon serves as a starting-point, the dictionary contains a number of etyma that are unique to Latvian or Old Prussian. Unlike in most other Baltic etymological studies, both Latvian and Lithuanian accentual data feature prominently. The author’s renewed attempt to reconstruct part of the Balto-Slavic lexicon has resulted in numerous additions and corrections.

The introductory chapter explains the structure of the dictionary and clarifies its theoretical framework. In addition, it provides a concise introduction to Baltic historical linguistics. The volume concludes with an extensive bibliography and a word index.

State Continuity and Nationality: The Baltic States and Russia

Past, Present and Future as Defined by International Law

Ineta Ziemele

The International Law Commission, when drafting articles on nationality of persons in situations of State succession, omitted cases of unlawful territorial changes. These do not result in State succession; they may be dealt with under the rubric of State continuity. The Baltic – Russian cases show the particularly complex nature of these situations, both as concerns agreement on continuity and decisions on nationality. The author examines in detail the Citizenship Laws of the Baltic States and Russia, as well as relevant constitutional and international statements about the international legal status of the States and responses of the international community thereto. The main question addressed in the book is about solutions which States have to adopt concerning nationality of individuals in situations of State continuity, especially where States re-emerge after long years of occupation. Although the book is specific in its origin, it is of general importance because it draws conclusions concerning developments in law and practice which are relevant for a better understanding and regulation of nationality and statehood in international law.