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Early Metallurgy of the Persian Gulf

Technology, Trade, and the Bronze Age World


Lloyd Weeks

This volume examines the earliest production and exchange of copper and its alloys in the Persian Gulf, a major metal supply route for the Bronze Age societies of Western Asia. Weeks addresses the geological and technological background to copper production in southeastern Arabia and contextualizes evidence for major fluctuations in prehistoric copper production. The core of the volume contists of compositional and isotopic analyses. The relationship between specialized copper production, exchange, and the development of social complexity in early Arabia is examined, and the author addresses the broader archaeological issue of the Bronze Age tin trade, which linked vast areas of Western Asia, from the Indo-Iranian borderlands to the Aegean, in the third millennium BC.
The Gazetteer of the Persian Gulf, Oman and Central Arabia is one of the most important European primary sources for the study of the modern Gulf region from the 17th to the early 20th century. The Gazetteer was compiled and written by John Gordon Lorimer (1870-1914), an official of the Indian Civil Service. The Gazetteer was intended as handbook for British policy makers and agents in the area. The wealth of historical, political and geographical information from which Lorimer composed the Gazetteer was sourced from official documents of the British government in India and the Gulf, from British naval and military establishments and the East India Company archives, and first-hand research and surveys. It is the fullest account of the state of knowledge of the region in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, and as such is still an important tool for researchers. This full-text searchable online version offers scholars and students unique possibilities to study and consult this important work.


Ahmad Razavi

The most significant characteristic of the Persian Gulf is the presence of huge oil-fields under the sea-bed of its shallow waters. On the other hand, the lack of understanding among the littoral states concerning the proper exploitation of these valuable resources has led to many conflicts, and is still considered as having a very high potential for conflict.
This work clarifies the international legal rules applicable to the region with particular attention to the special characteristics of the Persian Gulf, such as ethnic conflicts, lack of defined land borders, presence of numerous islands, reefs and shoals and the presence of transboundary oil deposits. It consists of a collection of materials relating to the law of the sea, including both domestic and international rules, conventions, maritime agreements, state practice, the jurisprudence of the International Court of Justice and others. The study analyses all of these important factors in order to find an equitable solution to the problems facing the international community.

Farajollah Ahmadi

Introduction The history of the British dominance in the Persian Gulf can be traced back to the eighteenth century and the aftermath of the competition between the European maritime powers when the main bone of contention was control of the trade routes. The first phase of British attempt to

R. Savari, E. Kamrani and A. Shahdadi

) discovered that both C. stellatus and C. montagui in the south of the U.K. produce more larvae at a sheltered site, due to higher food supply and better environmental conditions. The Persian Gulf is a subtropical shallow sea in the north west of the Indian Ocean (Kimor, 1973 ). High evaporation (144

Robert Carter

THE HISTORY AND PREHISTORY OF PEARLING IN THE PERSIAN GULF BY ROBERT CARTER* Abstract The paper presents an analysis and synthesis of historical and archaeological data on pearl fi shing in the Persian Gulf. The history of pearling in the region is reviewed, from the ear- liest possible

Jerzy Zdanowski

1 Slave Presence in the Gulf at the Turn of the 20th Century
 At the turn of the 20th century, slaves, male and female, were the most desirable goods on the Arabian coast of the Persian Gulf, in the Hijaz and Nejd. Comfort, enjoyment, respect and dignity depended on them. They served as water

Farideh Mohseni, Tooraj Valinassab, Ehsan Ramezani-Fard, S.M. Reza Fatemi and Mohammad Seddiq Mortazavi

characteristics of this family are the large size, long life, slow growth, low fecundity and mouth-breeding of the eggs (Reis, 1986). Catfish are considered as an important component of demersal fisheries in the Persian Gulf and the Sea of Oman (Cheraghi Shevi et al., 2015) with a mean yield of 2300 tons per

Mehrnaz Afkhami, Christoph D. Schubart and Reza Naderloo

southeastern coast of Africa to the western coast of India, including the Red Sea, Gulf of Oman and the Persian Gulf (Lee et al., 2013 ). Like many other members of the family Xanthidae, L. exaratus shows great diversity in colour patterns (Reuschel & Schubart, 2006 ; Todd et al., 2009 ). Its sister

Reza Naderloo and Peter K. L. Ng

REDISCOVERY OF THE RARE PILUMNID CRAB, ACTUMNUS SIMPLEX RATHBUN, 1911 (DECAPODA, BRACHYURA) AND A NEW RECORD FOR THE PERSIAN GULF BY REZA NADERLOO 1,3 ) and PETER K. L. NG 2,4 ) 1 ) Marine Zoologie, Forschungsinstitut Senckenberg, Senckenberganlage 25, D-60325 Frankfurt am Main, Germany; and