This paper centers on tonal representation of Chinese Wenzhou dialect. Tonal behaviors in Wenzhou indicate that tone is on an independent tier to the segment. Also, because of the complex of register and contour, Chinese tones have been represented with a structure of two dimensions, i.e. register and contour. However, these representations present an insolvable dilemma when analyzing the tonal behavior of Wenzhou dialect. Noticing that tone sandhi in Wenzhou is totally blind to register, we will propose that register is not an underlying feature for Wenzhou tone. We will further suggest that it is the initial consonant that carries the feature of register. This paper will conclude that the tonal representation of Wenzhou dialect has only one level, the tonal contour is formed by concatenation of level tones, and initial consonants carry the burden of meaning distinction that “tonal register” is supposed to carry.
Creaky voice is found in the entering tones (rusheng) in Baduhua, a Chinese dialect in Guangxi. Both rusheng tones in Baduhua have falling contours, yinru being high falling and yangru low falling. Of theoretical interest is that they contrast with the two plain falling tones, yinqu and yangqu, respectively, in the same language. The only difference between the two pairs of tones is presence or absence of creaky voice. This is the first time that creaky voice has been found to serve as the only distinctive feature in differentiating tonal categories.
and production of tonalcategories. For learners whose native language (L1) is non-tonal, tones may present great difficulty, since the functional association between the acoustic characteristics and th...
period does the language represent? (5) Are Karlgren's reconstructions of Archaic and Ancient Chinese reliable ? (6) What development took place in the four tonalcategories from Archaic Chinese to Ancient Chinese ? 'I°I.iat were the relations between phonological development and social history in the
the tone system for nouns as it finally emerges from the analysis.
2.2 A Dynamic View, Bringing Out Six Underlying TonalCategories for Monosyllabic Nouns, and Eleven Categories for Disyllabic Nouns
2.2.1 Monosyllabic Nouns
It was mentioned above that there are three patterns for
Fu (2003, p.79) also compares the tonal correspondence (in terms of tonalcategory) of 1,000 cognate words in Hlai (based on the varieties of Tongzha 通什 and Baoding 保定) and Gelong. He finds that some tonalcategories have a relatively high correspondence between the two languages, as shown in
, i.e. in isolation, which is standard field practice (Hyman 2010: 205; Kutsch Lojenga 2010: 7).
The six Tsua contrastive tonalcategories were established through speaker judgements, data from related languages and impressionistic categorization. The phonetic realization of the six tonal
as the sub-groups and branches that these dialects are affiliated with. The column "Tonalcategory" indicates which tone in a specific dialect is a DCT. The last column provides a total number of tones in each dialect.
Table 1: Dialects' with DCTs
It appears that the occurrence of a DCT
or part of a root consonant cluster.
10 For more on the techniques that are typically applied to the reconstruction of Old Chinese, see Handel (2015: 69–70).
11 Note: We ignore tonalcategories seen in some of the families. The development of tone in various subgroups, and the status of
form, i.e. how the tone is produced in isolation. In the large body of previous work on Chinese linguistics, tonalcategories are classified by two sets of descriptive terms: register denoting pitch height (high/low), and contour denoting pitch movement (rising, falling, dipping, etc.) The