-Dai on a large scale, and c. 700 CE , in the beginning of the Tang dynasty. Chinese of that period possessed a system of three true tones, not yet split into an upper and a lower series according to the voicing of the main syllable’s initial consonant. The Proto-Kra-Dai tone system is structurally
：“海上不同來，關中俱久住。”馬戴是定州曲陽人，賈島是范陽涿州人，其故鄉恰好位於義武軍和盧龍節度使境內，當時他們到長安去需繞經海路，由是可證河朔方鎮與唐中央政府轄境之間陸路交通阻隔。到五代時期石敬塘割讓燕雲十六州給契丹，最初的南界在莫州瀛州。後來宋遼以白溝（拒馬河）為界，但北宋為阻擋契丹騎兵，又在保州（今保定）到泥沽寨海口（天津南）瀦水為塘濼，今河北白洋澱仍是其遺跡。此外在自然地理上，這一地區又與唐宋滹沱河的流域地區大致相當，具有天然的分界線。所謂幽燕方言正在這樣的歷史地理背景下形成的。 北京話為代表的清入歸派四聲的演變現象，可以得到內部音變的解釋，但也不排除其他的影響在局部發生作用。比如前文已經提到過，雅言官話的存古“入聲”可能強化了北京話清入字讀為去聲的變化趨勢。隨著現代教育制度的建立，漢字審音校訂的標準不完全是由北京話的母語者建立，而一旦經由字典課本將這些帶有北京以外語言成分的語音標準作為範式在教育系統中推廣，其所造成的影響就不再屬於內在音變的範疇了。 引用文獻 Coblin W. S. 1996 . Tone and tone sandhi in Early Qing Guanhua . Yuen Ren Society Treasury of
Tone is the linguistic use of pitch, that is, when pitch is used to convey meaning, it is called tone. Pitch is the auditory impression of the acoustic signals of speech sounds, especially the frequencies, which are determined by the vibration of the vocal folds. We measure frequencies in hertz
Andrea Hoa PHAM
This paper examines clitics in colloquial Vietnamese. In Vietnamese, a clitic is a syllable that appears as a reduced form in casual speech and exhibits a phonological dependency on the material to its left. Only the tone of the former function word remains, while all its segments may be replaced. If the host ends in an obstruent, the clitic surfaces as a homorganic syllabic nasal. If the host ends in a vowel or a glide, the clitic surfaces as a lengthened part of that vowel or glide, unless it has a nasal rhyme, in which case it surfaces with its own nasal.
Beyond First-Language Transfer
© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 DOI: 10.1163/187226310X536213 Journal of the Philosophy of History 4 (2010) 354–374 brill.nl/jph On Sense, Reference, and Tone in History Eugen Zeleňák Catholic University in Ružomberok, Slovakia email@example.com Abstract This paper tries to show how the
Jiayin GAO and Pierre HALLÉ
consonants (voiceless vs. voiced) (see Table 1). The five syllable-citation tones in Shanghai Chinese are numbered tones 1–5, and referred to as T 1–5. Their citation forms (i.e., as produced on a single syllable) are 52 (˥˨), 34 (˧˦), 23 (˨˧), 55 (˥), and 12 (˩˨), respectively, according to Xu & Tang (1988
Phanintra Teeranon and Rungwimol Rungrojsuwan
Standard Thai tones are divided into two categories; namely, level tones (mid tone, low tone, and high tone) and contour tones (falling tone and rising tone).
All modern Chinese dialects have lexical tone, although they vary considerably in the size and behavior of their tone inventories. When tones occur in a compound or phrase, they may undergo change. This phenomenon is known as tone sandhi (liándú biàndiào 連讀變調) and is found in many, though not all