Laurent SAGART

-Dai on a large scale, and c. 700 CE , in the beginning of the Tang dynasty. Chinese of that period possessed a system of three true tones, not yet split into an upper and a lower series according to the voicing of the main syllable’s initial consonant. The Proto-Kra-Dai tone system is structurally

:“海上不同來,關中俱久住。”馬戴是定州曲陽人,賈島是范陽涿州人,其故鄉恰好位於義武軍和盧龍節度使境內,當時他們到長安去需繞經海路,由是可證河朔方鎮與唐中央政府轄境之間陸路交通阻隔。到五代時期石敬塘割讓燕雲十六州給契丹,最初的南界在莫州瀛州。後來宋遼以白溝(拒馬河)為界,但北宋為阻擋契丹騎兵,又在保州(今保定)到泥沽寨海口(天津南)瀦水為塘濼,今河北白洋澱仍是其遺跡。此外在自然地理上,這一地區又與唐宋滹沱河的流域地區大致相當,具有天然的分界線。所謂幽燕方言正在這樣的歷史地理背景下形成的。 北京話為代表的清入歸派四聲的演變現象,可以得到內部音變的解釋,但也不排除其他的影響在局部發生作用。比如前文已經提到過,雅言官話的存古“入聲”可能強化了北京話清入字讀為去聲的變化趨勢。隨著現代教育制度的建立,漢字審音校訂的標準不完全是由北京話的母語者建立,而一旦經由字典課本將這些帶有北京以外語言成分的語音標準作為範式在教育系統中推廣,其所造成的影響就不再屬於內在音變的範疇了。 引用文獻 Coblin W. S. 1996 . Tone and tone sandhi in Early Qing Guanhua . Yuen Ren Society Treasury of

Zhiming BAO

Tone is the linguistic use of pitch, that is, when pitch is used to convey meaning, it is called tone. Pitch is the auditory impression of the acoustic signals of speech sounds, especially the frequencies, which are determined by the vibration of the vocal folds. We measure frequencies in hertz

Andrea Hoa PHAM

This paper examines clitics in colloquial Vietnamese. In Vietnamese, a clitic is a syllable that appears as a reduced form in casual speech and exhibits a phonological dependency on the material to its left. Only the tone of the former function word remains, while all its segments may be replaced. If the host ends in an obstruent, the clitic surfaces as a homorganic syllabic nasal. If the host ends in a vowel or a glide, the clitic surfaces as a lengthened part of that vowel or glide, unless it has a nasal rhyme, in which case it surfaces with its own nasal.

Series:

Mee-Jeong Park

This book marks the first attempt to rationalise the meaning of Korean intonation, especially its boundary tones. Unlike other languages where various pragmatic and discourse meanings are delivered through the types of pitch accent (prominent pitch movement on stressed syllable) and the types of phrase-final boundary tones, Korean delivers the pragmatic/discourse meaning mainly by the types of phrase-final boundary tones. This is possible because Korean has at least nine boundary tones while other languages have two (or, even four or five if the boundary tone of a smaller phrase are included). Various examples are given that illustrate this three-way relationship, i.e., a specific meaning delivered by a certain type of boundary tone and a certain type of morphological marker in natural conversation.

Series:

Hang Zhang

Tones are the most challenging aspect of learning Chinese pronunciation for adult learners and traditional research mostly attributes tonal errors to interference from learners’ native languages. In Second Language Acquisition of Mandarin Chinese Tones, Hang Zhang offers a series of cross-linguistic studies to argue that there are factors influencing tone acquisition that extend beyond the transfer of structures from learners’ first languages, and beyond characteristics extracted from Chinese. These factors include universal phonetic and phonological constraints as well as pedagogical issues. By examining non-native Chinese tone productions made by speakers of non-tonal languages (English, Japanese, and Korean), this book brings together theory and practice and uses the theoretical insights to provide concrete suggestions for teachers and learners of Chinese.

Eugen Zeleňák

© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 DOI: 10.1163/187226310X536213 Journal of the Philosophy of History 4 (2010) 354–374 brill.nl/jph On Sense, Reference, and Tone in History Eugen Zeleňák Catholic University in Ružomberok, Slovakia eugen.zelenak@ku.sk Abstract This paper tries to show how the

Jiayin GAO and Pierre HALLÉ

consonants (voiceless vs. voiced) (see Table 1). The five syllable-citation tones in Shanghai Chinese are numbered tones 1–5, and referred to as T 1–5. Their citation forms (i.e., as produced on a single syllable) are 52 (˥˨), 34 (˧˦), 23 (˨˧), 55 (˥), and 12 (˩˨), respectively, according to Xu & Tang (1988

Phanintra Teeranon and Rungwimol Rungrojsuwan

Standard Thai tones are divided into two categories; namely, level tones (mid tone, low tone, and high tone) and contour tones (falling tone and rising tone).

Zhiming BAO

All modern Chinese dialects have lexical tone, although they vary considerably in the size and behavior of their tone inventories. When tones occur in a compound or phrase, they may undergo change. This phenomenon is known as tone sandhi (liándú biàndiào 連讀變調) and is found in many, though not all