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Mathieu Troïanowski, Camille Condette, Nathalie Mondy, Adeline Dumet and Thierry Lengagne

environment. It causes habitat destruction and fragmentation, animal mortality and chemical and noise pollution (Forman & Alexander, 1998 ). Several studies have investigated the impact of traffic noise on natural populations, as it is undoubtedly the most important source of anthropogenic noise. For example

Fernando Vargas-Salinas and Adolfo Amézquita

-West, 2007 ), call rate, call duration and call frequency (Penna et al., 2005 ; Kaiser & Hammers, 2009 ; Cunnington & Fahrig, 2010 ; Gross et al., 2010 ; Both & Grant, 2012 ). A previous study suggests that traffic noise can inhibit calling in anurans leading to a pattern of calling gap behaviour with

Damjan Možina

). Accordingly, they can be compensated in different ways. These questions are particularly relevant in Slovenia. For the last fifteen years, the courts have heard thousands of claims against the state due to traffic noise from public roads and railroads. Hundreds of new claims have been filed recently

Eike Albrecht

road traffic which is not really surprising. 14 Road traffic noise is followed by neighbourhood noise, noise of 10) See table  in the annex to the Decision of the Commission of . December , OJ  L , p. . 11) E.g. Art.  and  of the Directive //EC of the European Parliament and of the

David Luther and Katherine Gentry

, gleaning bats, whose echolocation signaling is affected by the presence of traffic noise, are suffer- ing from a decreased rate of prey capture (Barber et al., 2010). The timing and amplitude of anthropogenic noise like other sources of background noise 1052 Background noise and evolution of communication

Menemsha Alloush, Douglas Scofield, Susanne Marczak, Robin Jones, Kristine Kaiser, Mark Oliva, Peter M. Narins and Katherine Martineau

& Ramankutty, 2008), one of the more poorly understood consequences of such alteration is the effect of the introduction of anthropogenic noise, such as traffic noise, on acousti- cally communicating animals. Some species of birds have been shown to avoid habitats near roads (Forman & Alexander, 1998) or to

Kristine Kaiser and Jessica Hammers

such as road construction and subsequent traffic noise in pristine habi- tats has been shown to be detrimental to a range of vertebrate taxa. The effect of anthro- pogenic noise on anuran communication is not well known, and has only recently been a topic of investigation. We tested the effect of

Kristen L.D. Marini, Matthew W. Reudink, Stefanie E. LaZerte and Ken A. Otter

periods of heavy traffic noise. This too would not solely account for increased vocal output we saw, especially as the extended length of the chorus we witnessed would negate anti-masking advantages of starting to sing earlier to signal before the traffic noise begins to increase. Acute exposure to noise

Marc Naguib

, such as traffic noise providing a more or less steady background level. Other sources are industrial or construction noise, noise associated with human leisure activities invading otherwise quieter habitats, as well as noise present during husbandry and transport of domestic animals. These different

Ludwig Krämer

Commission intended to propose legislation on further noise reductions and made an impact assessment. 24 The impact assessment report (hereafter: the Report) declared that this reduction was to be reached by replacing the existing, inadequate methods for measuring road traffic noise by a new test method