environment. It causes habitat destruction and fragmentation, animal mortality and chemical and noise pollution (Forman & Alexander, 1998 ). Several studies have investigated the impact of trafficnoise on natural populations, as it is undoubtedly the most important source of anthropogenic noise. For example
Anthropogenic noise continues to increase worldwide and trafficnoise has now become the most prominent source of noise pollution (Barber et al., 2010; Mennitt et al., 2015). This is of great concern as chronic exposure to trafficnoise has been found to be associated with
-West, 2007 ), call rate, call duration and call frequency (Penna et al., 2005 ; Kaiser & Hammers, 2009 ; Cunnington & Fahrig, 2010 ; Gross et al., 2010 ; Both & Grant, 2012 ). A previous study suggests that trafficnoise can inhibit calling in anurans leading to a pattern of calling gap behaviour with
). Accordingly, they can be compensated in different ways.
These questions are particularly relevant in Slovenia. For the last fifteen years, the courts have heard thousands of claims against the state due to trafficnoise from public roads and railroads. Hundreds of new claims have been filed recently
Brumm , H. & Zollinger , S.A. ( 2011 ). The evolution of the Lombard effect: 100 years of psychoacoustic research . — Behaviour 148 : 1173 - 1198 .
Caorsi , V.Z. , Both , C. , Cechin , S. , Antunes , R. & Borges-Martins , M. ( 2017 ). Effects of trafficnoise on the calling
road traﬃc which is not really surprising. 14 Road traﬃcnoise is followed by neighbourhood noise, noise of 10) See table in the annex to the Decision of the Commission of . December , OJ L , p. . 11) E.g. Art. and of the Directive //EC of the European Parliament and of the
their vocal signals. For instance, gleaning bats, whose echolocation signaling is affected by the presence of trafficnoise, are suffer- ing from a decreased rate of prey capture (Barber et al., 2010). The timing and amplitude of anthropogenic noise like other sources of background noise
such as road construction and subsequent trafficnoise in pristine habi- tats has been shown to be detrimental to a range of vertebrate taxa. The effect of anthro- pogenic noise on anuran communication is not well known, and has only recently been a topic of investigation. We tested the effect of
& Ramankutty, 2008), one of the more poorly understood consequences of such alteration is the effect of the introduction of anthropogenic noise, such as trafficnoise, on acousti- cally communicating animals. Some species of birds have been shown to avoid habitats near roads (Forman & Alexander, 1998) or to
, such as trafficnoise providing a more or less steady background level. Other sources are industrial or construction noise, noise associated with human leisure activities invading otherwise quieter habitats, as well as noise present during husbandry and transport of domestic animals. These different