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) of Bangladesh: the role of plant species richness . Biotropica 39 : 539 - 545 . Nature Conservation Management (NACOM) ( 2003 ): Secondary Data Collection for Pilot Protected Areas: Lawachara National Park. Co-Management of Tropical Forest Resources of Bangladesh, USAID, Dhaka, pp

In: Amphibia-Reptilia

tropical forests; Seymour & Jones, 2000 ; Nyeko, 2009 , for other regions of the world). Silva et al. ( 2010 ) suggested two hypotheses that may explain the lower abundance and richness of dung beetles in the dry season: 1) adults in open habitats are sensitive to the effects of drought and remain

In: Animal Biology

Since Solem’s provocative claim in the early 1980s that land snails in tropical forests are neither abundant nor diverse, at least 30 quantitative-ecological papers on tropical land snail communities have appeared. Jointly, these papers have shown that site diversity is, in fact, high in tropical forests; often more than 100 species have been recorded per site, which is somewhat more than normally found at sites in higher latitudes. At the same time, however, point diversities (which usually range between 10 and 30 species per quadrat) appear to be no different from the ones recorded for temperate localities, which suggests that the number of ways in which syntopic resource space can be subdivided among different land snail species has an upper limit that is no higher under tropical conditions. The available data do not allow much analysis of the ecological structuring processes of communities besides very coarse ones, e.g. the proportions of carnivores versus herbivores and Pulmonata versus non-pulmonates. Also, these first 30 years of research have shown that a number of serious methodological and conceptual issues need to be resolved for the field to move ahead; in particular whether empty shells from the forest floor may be used as a proxy for the contemporaneous communities. I make a number of suggestions for ways in which these obstacles may be removed. First, studies should be preceded by exploratory nested sampling in contiguous quadrats of increasing size, spanning several orders of magnitude. The shape of the triphasic species-area curve and nonlinear regression of the small-area end of the curve will help identify the quadrat and site areas that allow ecologically more meaningful studies. Second, researchers should be more aware of the trophic levels of species and restrict their analyses within guilds and within body size classes as much as possible. Testing species abundance distributions against ecologically explicit theoretical models may be a fruitful avenue for research. Finally, I argue that studies of this nature require species abundances that may only be found in tropical land snail communities that live on calcareous substrate, and therefore I suggest that malacologists aiming to understand community structure focus on limestone sites initially.

In: Contributions to Zoology

required by surveyors. Anuran census is believed to be more effective at detecting arboreal species, and less effective for leaf litter and aquatic species detection (Veith et al., 2004). There are too few studies to determine the efficacy of this method in West African tropical forests, or in targeting

In: Amphibia-Reptilia

be affected locally by anthropogenic factors such as deforestation or habitat fragmentation, reducing their total area of occurrence. The anurans that build arboreal nests (e.g., Phyllomedusa , group 3) are generally restricted to humid tropical forests (Hödl, 1990 ), where the high relative

In: Amphibia-Reptilia
Author: Arthur A. Owiny

intermediate disturbance hypothesis applies to tropical forests, but disturbance contributes little to tree diversity . Ecol Lett. 12 : 798 – 805 . Brook BW , Bradshaw CJA , Pin Koh L , Sodhi NS . 2006 . Momentum drives the crash: mass extinction in the tropics . Biotropica. 38 : 302

In: Israel Journal of Ecology and Evolution

Amphibia-Reptilia 26 (2005): 431-435 Female courtship calls of the litter frog ( Rana curtipes ) in the tropical forests of Western Ghats, South India Savitha N. Krishna 1 and Sharath B. Krishna 2 Abstract. We noticed an uncommon phenomenon of female vocalization in the forest litter frog, Rana

In: Amphibia-Reptilia

Degradation of male and female rufous-and-white wren songs in a tropical forest: effects of sex, perch height, and habitat Nicole K.S. Barker 1,3) , Torben Dabelsteen 2) & Daniel J. Mennill 1) ( 1 Department of Biological Sciences, University of Windsor, 401 Sunset Avenue, Windsor, Ontario

In: Behaviour
In: Natural Resources Grabbing: An International Law Perspective

Abstract

While deforestation is one of the greatest drivers of biodiversity loss, our understanding of the effects of habitat modification on species is limited. We investigated the diet of a forest-dwelling frog species, Morafka’s frog (Odorrana morafkai), in a highland forest in Vietnam in relation to habitat disturbance, sex and season. We surveyed the species at 45 sites in forest of varying disturbance and examined its diet using stomach flushing, estimating prey availability via trapping. We detected significantly fewer O. morafkai in highly disturbed habitats compared to moderately disturbed or non-disturbed habitats. We revealed that O. morafkai is a dietary generalist, identifying 28 prey types, primarily invertebrates. Prey composition, the number of prey items per stomach and prey volume per stomach did not vary between disturbance levels. Diet did not vary significantly between sexes, except that females had a higher prey volume. Prey composition in the species varied between seasons, with Coleoptera and Orthoptera dominating the diet in the rainy season and Lepidoptera in the dry season. The number of prey items per stomach and prey volume were significantly higher in the rainy season. There was a significant correlation between prey availability and diet composition. The low number of O. morafkai detected in highly disturbed habitats suggests that this habitat may not be optimal for the species, despite having a generalist feeding strategy and presumed high mobility. This study provides a window into the impact of an increasing threat, habitat disturbance, on forest-dependent amphibian species.

In: Amphibia-Reptilia