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Warm Climates and Western Medicine

The Emergence of Tropical Medicine, 1500-1900

Series:

Edited by David Arnold

It is generally assumed that tropical medicine only emerged as a medical specialism in the late nineteenth century under the aegis of men like Patrick Manson and Ronald Ross. However, recent research (much of it brought together for the first time in this volume) shows that a distinctive medicine of 'warm climates' came into existence much earlier in areas like the West-Indies, Indonesia and India. Europeans' health needs were one imperative, but this was more than just the medicine of Europe shipped overseas. Contact with non-Western medical ideas and practices was also a stimulus, as was Europe's encounter with unfamiliar environments and peoples.

These essays provide valuable insights into the early history of tropical medicine and from the standpoint of several European powers. They examine the kinds of medicine practised, the responses to local diseases and environments and diseases, the nature of the medical constituencies that developed, and the relationship between the old medicine of 'warm climates' and the emerging tropical medicine of the late nineteenth century. The volume as a whole expands the parameters for the discussion of the evolution of Western medicine and opens up new perspectives on European science and society overseas.

Swee-Cheng Lim, Nicole J. de Voogd and Koh-Siang Tan

Edited by R.W.M. van Soest

A surprisingly high number of shallow water sponge species (197) were recorded from extensive sampling of natural intertidal and subtidal habitats in Singapore (Southeast Asia) from May 2003 to June 2010. This is in spite of a highly modified coastline that encompasses one of the world’s largest container ports as well as extensive oil refining and bunkering industries. A total of 99 intertidal species was recorded in this study. Of these, 53 species were recorded exclusively from the intertidal zone and only 45 species were found on both intertidal and subtidal habitats, suggesting that tropical intertidal and subtidal sponge assemblages are different and distinct. Furthermore, only a third of the fouling species of sponges from a previous study was recorded in this study, thus suggesting that sponge assemblages from natural and fouling communities in the tropics are different as well. A new species, Forcepia (Forcepia) vansoesti is described from Singapore. Members of this genus possess unique spicules shaped in the form of a pair of forceps. The new species is distinguished from its congeners in having the largest forceps (nearly 300 μm in length) so far recorded in the Indo-Pacific.

R.M.D. Somarathna and K.H.G.M. De Silva

, tropical. INTRODUCTION Tropical streams are inhabited by a large variety of fish species, several species often occupying the same macro-habitat. The niche differentia- tion of such fish assemblages has been studied recently by several authors (SENANAYAKE & MOYLE, 1 11; MOYLE & SENANAYAKE, 1984; SCHUT Bt

Kelsey Paulling, David Wilson and Tasmin L. Rymer

occur (Overman et al., 1992), discrimination between different odour cues cannot occur in the absence of recognition of those cues. The ability to recognise and discriminate between odours could be critical for prey species living in complex environments, such as tropical rainforests, as increased

Series:

Xiaohui Shen

these tropical African countries as the panic of the virus spread to other countries. Since the epidemic in West Africa was going out of control, the World Health Organization announced that the Ebola outbreak had become a worldwide public emergency and demanded all countries to attach great importance

Carissa Jones, Isaac Rojas-González, Julio Lemos-Espinal and Jaime Zúñiga-Vega

Amphibia-Reptilia 29 (2008): 245-256 Demography of Xenosaurus platyceps (Squamata: Xenosauridae): a comparison between tropical and temperate populations R. Isaac Rojas-González 1 , Carissa P. Jones 2 ,* , J. Jaime Zúñiga-Vega 2 , Julio A. Lemos-Espinal 1 Abstract. There appears to be variation

Shahriar Caesar Rahman, S.M.A. Rashid, Kanai Das and Luca Luiselli

, 2008 ). Several studies, both empirical and theoretical, suggested that interspecific competition should be more intense in tropical than in non-tropical communities (Rhode, 1992; Luiselli, 2008 ; Vignoli and Luiselli, 2012 ), and that diversification of body sizes among potential competitors may

M.R. Wilson

. from Philippine Islands. A key to males is provided. The lectotype of P. lineaticollis (Distant) is designated. Key words: Homoptera, Auchenorrhyncha, Cicadellidae, Paramesodes, species descrip- tions, Old World, tropical, sub-tropical. M. R. Wilson, Commonwealth Inst. of Entomology, 56 Queen's Gate

Steven R. Telford and J. Mark Dangerfield

MATING TACTICS IN THE TROPICAL MILLIPEDE ALLOPORUS UNCINATUS (DIPLOPODA: SPIROSTREPTIDAE) by STEVEN R. TELFORD1) and J. MARK DANGERFIELD23) (Department of Biological Sciences, University of Zimbabwe, P.O. Box MP167, Mount Pleasant, Harare, Zimbabwe) (With 5 Figures) (Acc. 21.XII-1992) Summary

Delphine Beyrend-Dur, Gaël Dur, Sami Souissi and Jiang-Shiou Hwang

and of higher quality than those of commonly used live feeds (Shields et al., 1999 ; Støttrup, 2000 ; Evjemo et al., 2003 ). In the tropical regions of Taiwan, several outdoors aquaculture farms cultivate copepods in mass culture ponds to feed the larvae of their own commercial aquaculture species