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Holger Janusch

, so failed negotiations were considered only marginally in most studies, although the two-level game, in particular, focuses on the outcome of negotiations. And even when scholars of the two-level game did analyze the failure of negotiations, uncertainty served as the key explanation for their

Holger Janusch

In rationalistic approaches of new liberalism such as the two-level game (Putnam 1988; Milner 1997) and liberal intergovernmentalism (Moravcsik 1998; Moravcsik & Schimmelfennig 2009), actors’ preferences are usually assumed to be fixed during international negotiations. However, in domestic as well

LeoGrande, William M.

toward Cuba has not changed in the post-cold war period. He offers the theory or "metaphor" of international bargaining as a two-level game, with both a domestic and international level.keywordsU.S. i...

Magdalena Frennhoff Larsén

(Mortensen 2009; Ripoll Servent 2014; Young & Peterson 2014). This article responds to this need by using a two-level game analysis, which extends its domestic focus to include the ep as an additional domestic constituent to that of the Council, to analyze the btia negotiations between the eu and India

Matthew Rice

will nonetheless highlight important contributions to the existing body of academic literature on summitry. Of direct relevance to the study of summitry is Robert Putnam’s theory that international negotiations can be depicted as a two-level game. This ‘game’ comprises both a domestic and an


conceptualization of the two-level game improve our understanding of how chief negotiators create a negotiation strategy? To address these questions, it will be explained how a state formulates its international strategy by taking into account that states partici- pate in international institutions and are bound by


. The metaphor of the two-level game has been used to describe the process whereby political leaders find themselves negotiating simultaneously at the domestic and international tables when trying to reach international cooperative agreements. This article examines the role of domestic politics in the

Putnam, Robert D.

argues that foreign policy is always a "two-level" game in which diplomats must win approval for their actions from a domestic audience as well as an international audience. Moreover, the author contend...


research focus from state-centric to aggregate actor explanations. Using a two-level game framework, Mitchell analyzes the role played by allies in influencing the course of the negotiation process and tests several propositions in a case study of the Gulf War alliance. His analysis focuses on the intra