The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) was established in 1965 through the merger of two predecessor programmes for UN technical co-operation. The UNDP is the UN's principal provider of development advice, advocacy and grant support. It helps countries build their capacities for
involvement of ngo s) as well as in the production of data and its use (involvement of ngo s and international organizations, notably the oecd / undp ).
B The Formulation of Indicators
Because the creation of indicators can be viewed as an act of authority that will impose requirements for specific
( undp ) Report, 16 unleashing a flurry of institution-building activities outside of, and within, the un . 17 The comparatively older version attributes the germinating of the concept to a selection of reports by Global Commissions during the 1980, 18 whereas the genuine substantive origin is to be
The book argues that the Cuban Revolution warrants a closer look as a model of socialist human development. A re-reading of the Cuban Revolution from this angle engages unresolved issues in the theory of socialist humanism and the notion of human development popularized by the United Nations Development Programme (i.e., predicated on capitalism). UNDP economists and other agencies of international cooperation for development give a human face to a capitalist development process that is anything but humane. Socialism in Cuba has taken a very different form (socialist human development) than it did elsewhere in the twentieth century. The Cuban Revolution's unique characteristics enabled it to survive adverse conditions - a 'near-perfect storm' - that still threaten its evolution.
. Planned Chinese hydropower reservoirs may increase the dry season flow – allowing the lower Mekong countries to share future increments of dry season flow. Negotiation assistance by UNDP was necessary to overcome a legacy of mistrust. Key articles of the Agreement deal with maintaining dry season flows
Emerging Principles of International Environmental Law is ideally suited for any law or environmental studies student, practitioner or law academic who is interested in the legal status of emerging principles in the field of international environmental law. Among its highlights, the text examines the interaction of principles/concepts such as sustainable development, the precautionary principle etc., with one another and how the present international environmental law regime has taken the vast disparity between developed and developing countries into account in designing innovative methods to accommodate this disparity.
Following an introductory chapter on the development of international environmental law, the book explores five concepts/principles that have emerged in the recent years in this field and discusses their relationship to one another, particularly how they interact and contribute to the achievement of sustainable development: sustainable development, the precautionary principle, the environmental impact assessment process and participatory rights, the common but differentiated responsibility principle and the polluter pays principle. The final chapter evaluates the emergence of a distinct field of international law called ‘International Sustainable Development Law’ and discusses its future direction.
While these principles or concepts have received much attention in previous literature, not much attention has been paid to their interaction with one another and how the present international environmental law regime has taken the vast disparity between developed and developing countries into account in designing innovative methods to accommodate this disparity. It is here the strength of the book lies.
The book was written to provide a firm grasp of international environmental law issues and of international law in general. It is intended for the international market, for anybody who is interested in the future direction of international environmental law and of sustainable development. As such, it would be relevant not only to the law student and law academic, but also to international organizations such as UNEP, Commission on Sustainable Development, UNDP and the World Bank as well as for international and national civil society groups engaged in environmental issues and human rights issues.
Published under the Transnational Publishers imprint.