Nematology , 2006, Vol. 8(6), 869-879 Volatilecompounds in pine stands suffering from
pine wilt disease: qualitative and quantitative evaluation Yuko T AKEUCHI 1 , ∗ ,
Natsumi K ANZAKI 2 , ∗∗ and Kazuyoshi F UTAI 1 1 Laboratory of Environmental
Mycoscience, Graduate School of
may be useful for the nematicide-producing industry.
The role of volatilecompounds from processed oilseed residues, such as castor bean cake, has been investigated for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes (Lopes et al ., 2009; Dinardo-Miranda & Fracasso, 2010; Santos et al ., 2013). Four
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Angerosa, F. 2002. Influence of volatilecompounds on virgin olive oil quality evaluated by analytical
, A. 1993. Volatile constituents of roses. In: Teranishi, R., Buttery, R.G., Sugisawa, H., eds. Bioactive volatilecompounds from plants. American Chemical Society, Washington, DC, pp. 269-281.
Gudin, S. 2000. Rose: genetics and breeding. Plant Breed. 17: 159-189.
Lavid, N., Wang, J
flick in presence of secretions than with the control. This suggests that secretions have volatilecompounds, probably perceived by the olfactory system, which trigger tongue flicking. This response provides non-volatilecompounds to the vomeronasal organ, probably with a more detailed information of
hexadecyl acetate is the dominating one. The analyses have been carried out by combined gas chromatography and mass spectrometry and by capillary gas chromatography. In both techniques we have been using a precolumn for isolating the volatilecompounds. Introduction Formicine ants have a number of exocrine
were 250 and 300°C, respectively. The volatilecompounds were identified, with similarity index (SI) > 90, from the database search through comparison of the mass spectrum of the substance with GC/MS system data banks (NIST and LIB library).
Nematicidal activities of commercial products of VOC
The anatomical structure of the secretory hairs of eight species of Labiatae was studied and the main components of their secretory substances identified. Peltate and capitate hairs were found in all species, the latter consisting of three types, differing in structure and mode of secretion. The capitate hairs precede the peltate hairs in their development and secretory activity. In the capitate hairs the secreted material is extruded to the outside, while in the peltate hairs it remains in a subcuticular space. The eight species were divided into groups according to the structure of the volatile compounds they secrete.
Analytical and structural studies were performed on 45 species of higher plants containing specialized secretory structures and/or producing essential oils or resins. Significant amounts of volatile compounds, mainly monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes, were recovered from these species. The specialized structures included glandular hairs, resin ducts, secretory cavities and idioblasts. During the ultrastructural investigation, special attention was paid to the plastidome. A number of secretory cells contain true leucoplasts, devoid of thylakoids and ribosomes. The comparison between analytical and structural data showed a very close correlation between the presence of leucoplasts in secretory cells and the significant quantities of monoterpenes (hydrocarbons or oxygenated compounds) in the volatile extract. Moreover, a morphometric estimation of leucoplast development in the cells suggested a quantitative relationship between the expansion of this plastidome and the ratio of monoterpenes in the oil. These data support the concept that leucoplasts are involved in monoterpene biosynthesis. On the other hand, no relationship exists between the occurrence of leucoplasts in the secretory cells and the presence of sesquiterpenes, phenylpropanoid or aliphatic compounds in the essential oil.
Environmental justice research suggests that inequalities in the distribution of environmental quality systematically disadvantage the lower social strata of society. The effects of these inequalities on the human exposure to specific chemical pollution remain, however, to a large extend unknown, especially in hotspot areas where surrounding neighbourhoods are exposed to a mixture of diverse pollution. In Flanders, the northern part of Belgium, a community-based participatory approach was set up between 2009-2010 to collect blood, urine and hair samples of 197 socially and ethnically diverse adolescents (14-15 years of age) living in the close proximity of a non-ferro industrial area. We conduct a socio-stratification of human biomonitoring results by associating the internal body concentration of three types of chemical pollution (heavy metals, POPs and volatile compounds) with individual socioeconomic status (SES) and ethnic background. Social gradients in exposure to these chemicals are assessed with geometric means, using multiple regression models, controlling for covariates and confounders. Our results show that, depending on the (type of) pollutant, adolescents with a lower SES can either have higher or lower internal concentrations. Socially constructed factors, such as dietary and lifestyle habits, play an important role in these relations. We conclude that when assessing the human exposure concentrations of pollutants, more complex patterns of social stratification emerge than can be assumed on the basis of the environmental justice hypothesis. It therefore remains important to consider the chemical environment in relation to the social environment when monitoring environmental health risks. By emphasising on transparent communication and relevant interaction between residents, local stakeholders and scientists, monitoring environmental health could enhance the empowerment of socioeconomically disadvantaged communities.