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Alexander V. Georgiev, Diana Christie, Kevin A. Rosenfield, Angelina V. Ruiz-Lambides, Elizabeth Maldonado, Melissa Emery Thompson and Dario Maestripieri

ordinal ranks. A higher-ranking male has a higher Elo-rating (not shown) but a lower ordinal rank. 3.6. Condition and health By the end of the mating season, 11Z’s body condition had visibly deteriorated from weight loss. Following his overthrow he continued to lose weight (Figure 4(c)), as he was

J.H. Van Balen and A.J. Cavé

SURVIVAL AND WEIGHT LOSS OF NESTLING GREAT TITS, PARUS MAJOR, IN RELATION TO BROOD-SIZE AND AIR TEMPERATURE by J. H. VAN BALEN and A. J. CAVÉ (Institute for Ecological Research, Arnhem, The Netherlands) I. INTRODUCTION Experiments made by MERTENS (1969) suggest that the risk of hyper- thermia

Wen-rong Gao, Wan-long Zhu, Fang-yan Ye, Mu-lin Zuo and Zheng-kun Wang

mass, carcass mass and body fat mass in tree shrews restricted to 85% of initial food intake. Weight losses were also observed in food restricted Apodemus chevrieri (Zhu et al., 2013 ), Eothenomys miletus (Zhu et al., 2014 ) and Swiss mice (Zhao & Cao, 2009 ). Inconsistently, body mass did not

Graeme Ruxton, Jens Krause, David Cheng and Emma Kirkman

opportunities in terms of relative weight loss were lower for minnows than sticklebacks. Therefore hiding in a refuge comes at a lower metabolic cost for minnows than sticklebacks. Both species reduced their hiding time when food deprived and increased it following a predation threat. Furthermore, they both

Svend Nørgaard Holm

hibernation. The weight losses occurred during the first half of the hibernation period after which time the body weight in- creased. Significant, positive correlations were found between the body weight of the queens and the length of the period of survival during and after hibernation respectively

Carmen Úbeda and José Nuñez

fact that some male of Eupsophus were found in advanced stages of weight loss confirms the hypothesis that they remain by the clutch until metamorphosis takes place. The parental care behaviour observed in Eupsophus and Batrachyla complements the reproductive strategy of their species, which have few

Christopher Dickman and Michelle Christy

. Salinities from 10- 15% sw (4.41-6.73 ) were tolerated for short periods (up to 3 weeks) before signiŽ cant weight loss and mortality resulted, indicating a detrimental cumulative effect with high salinity. Metamorphosis occurred frequently below 5.5% sw but did not occur above 5.5% sw. Although L. aurea

Neftalí Rios-López

weeks showed significant weight loss at 8 ppt, but showed no difference in length. These results suggest that anuran tadpoles may be living near their physiological limit for salinity in the studied wetland. Conservation implications are profound, however, as salt water intrusion and urban encroaching

George E. Mustoe

Measuring density of silicified wood and determining weight loss after 450°C heating provides useful data for interpreting the process of permineralization. These simple gravimetric methods do not replace X-ray diffraction, electron microscopy, polarized light microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, and other specialized techniques for studying fossil wood, but they can be performed rapidly, and require minimal laboratory facilities. Woods mineralized with opal have densities of 1.9–2.1 g/cm3, compared to 2.3–2.6 g/cm3 for wood mineralized with chalcedony or quartz. Weight loss after 450°C heating, commonly described as “loss on ignition” can be used to roughly estimate the % of original organic matter that remains in chalcedony or quartz-mineralized wood, using the density of extant taxa for comparison. For opalized wood, 450°C weight loss mostly represents dehydration of the hydrous silica. Data from specimens from 20 localities reveal two characteristics: 1) silicified woods typically consist either of opal or chalcedony/quartz, not an intermediate mixture of the two silica polymorphs; 2) the percentage of organic matter that remains after petrifaction is usually very small.