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Tiasei Kikuchi, Peter J.A. Cock, Johannes Helder and John T. Jones

roots and bulbs of several species including onion and crocus. However, the most economically important nematode of the genus is A. besseyi , an important and widespread pathogen that causes ‘white tipdisease on rice. The disease is seed-borne and infected plants are reduced in size and yield small

Katsumi Togashi and Shigeru Hoshino

white tip disease. To determine the relationships between nematode numbers per seed, size of seed harbouring nematodes, and nematode mortality, 18 panicles were collected from 12 paddy Ž elds showing three different levels of white tip disease. The panicles were investigated after storage for 30-82 days

. REFERENCES ATKINS, J. G. & TODD, E. H. (1959). White tip disease of rice. III. Field tests and varietal resistance. Phytopathology 49, 189-191. FORTUNER, F. & ORTON WILLIAMS, K. J. (1975). Review of the literature on Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, 1942, the nematode causing "white tip disease" in rice

Y.C. Chiang and C.S. Huang

. and Hort. (Jap.) 34, 63-64. TODD, E. H. & ATKINS, J. G. (1958). White tip disease of rice. I. Symptoms, laboratory culture of nematodes, and pathogenicity tests. Phytopathology 48, 632-637. VAN GUNDY, S. D. (1965). Factors in survival of nematodes. Ann. Rev. Phytopath. 3, 43-68. YOSHII, H. & YAMAMOTO

Katsumi Togashi and Shigeru Hoshino

nematode density per seed at a specified precision level is presented. Keywords – clumped distribution, mean crowding, paddy field, rice, white tip disease, white tip nematode. The white tip nematode, Aphelenchoides besseyi , is a seed-borne ectoparasite of rice plant, Oryza sativa , and the causative

C.S. Huang and S.P. Huang

soil. J. Helminth. 15, 69-74. FUKANO, H. (1962). Ecological studies on white-tip disease of rice plant caused by Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie and its control. Bulletin of the Fukuoka Agricultural Experiment Station. (Japan). No. 18, 1-108. GROVER, D. W. & NICOL, J. M. (1940). The vapour pressure of

S.P. Huang, C.S. Huang and Y.C. Chiang

. M. (1972). Observations on the effect of males on reproduction and fecundity of Aphe- lenchus avenae. Nematologica 18, 179-189. FUKANO, H. (1962). Ecological studies on white-tip disease of rice plant caused by Aphelenchoides besseyi. Bull. Fukuoka Agri. Exptl. Sta. (Jap.) No. 18, 108 pp. (In

L.H. Lin, C.S. Huang and S.P. Huang

hatching appeared to be 30°. At 35° the nematode failed to build-up its population, though oviposition, hatching and molting took place. Studies on laboratory culturing, crop damage, control, bionomics and various other aspects of Aphelenchoides be.r.reyi, the incitant of rice white-tip disease, have been

Hui Feng, Ying Shao, Li-hui Wei, Cun-yi Gao and Yi-jun Zhou

-3119(13)60608-5 . Fortuner R. Orton-Williams K.J. ( 1975 ). Review of the literature on Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie, 1942, the nematode causing “white tipdisease in rice . Helminthological Abstracts, Series B; Plant Nematology 44 , 1 - 40 . Fudali S.L. Wang C. Williamson V.M. ( 2013