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Valentina Rovelli, Aritz Ruiz-González, Leonardo Vignoli, Daniele Macale, Vincenzo Buono, Francesca Davoli, David R. Vieites, Nadav Pezaro and Ettore Randi

vertebrates, which often includes multiple whole-genome duplication events (Mable et al., 2011; Voss et al., 2011). Whole-genome duplication events increase the complexity of genomic studies and in particular they make SNP calling more challenging, due to the presence of paralogous loci. The main problem in

Nils Bareither, André Scheffel and Johannes Metz

range in relation to ploidy level in the flora of the Pyrenees . Evol Ecol . 13 : 45 – 65 . del Pozo JC , Ramirez-Parra E . 2015 . Whole genome duplications in plants: an overview from Arabidopsis . J Exp Bot. 66 : 6991 – 7003 . R Core Team . 2015 . R: a language and environment for

Yun Tang, Chun Lan Mai, Jian Ping Yu and Da Yong Li

Introduction Genome size varies greatly both within and among species (Cavalier-Smith, 1978; Gregory, 2005; Lynch, 2007). The variation in genome size is largely the result of two main mechanisms: whole-genome duplication events (polyploidization) and the accumulation of non-coding elements, first

Menelaos Kavouras, Emmanouil E. Malandrakis, Eleni Golomazou, Ioannis Konstantinidis, Ewout Blom, Arjan P. Palstra, Konstantinos Anastassiadis, Panagiota Panagiotaki and Athanasios Exadactylos

seven clusters (Martin & Holland, 2014, 2017). All genes are oriented in the same direction, as a result of evolutionarily successive whole genome duplications (Amores et al., 2004). They are classified in 13 paralog groups (PGs) according to sequence homology and their position within the cluster, but

H.H. Boer, C.J. Cornelisse, C. Groot and M. Dejong-Brink

of fixation. The results indicate that the DNA content of the neurons of L. stagnalis increases step-wise as the animal grows. Obviously the whole genome duplicates a number of times. The maximum number of duplications encountered was 11 times 2C (4096C). This is less then reported for giant neurons

Michael James Crawford

. Becker T. S. Lenhard B. Exonic remnants of whole-genome duplication reveal cis-regulatory function of coding exons Nucleic Acids Res 2010 38 4 1071 1085 Duboule D. Temporal colinearity and the phylotypic progression: a basis for the stability of a

Martha Tobias, Ben J. Evans and Darcy B. Kelley

hybridization resulting in whole genome duplication (al- lopolyploidization; Evans, 2007, 2008). The phylogenetic history of African clawed frogs, thus, includes evolutionary lineages that bifurcate and those that reticulate through time. Vocalizations of African clawed frogs comprise numerous temporal and

Elisabeth A. Wheeler, Rashmi Srivastava, Steven R. Manchester and Pieter Baas

Associate-editor Michael Wiemann

JW , Sessa EB , Harmon LJ . 2015 . Nested radiations and the pulse of angiosperm diversification: increased diversification rates often follow whole genome duplications . New Phytol. 207 : 454 – 467 . Tarelkin Y , Delvaux C , De Ridder M , El Berkani