The popular reading of xing yu nei 形於內 (being actualized from the internal) in Wuxing creates a predicament in the understanding of “xing 行 (behaviors)” which is not xing yu nei. As stated in Wuxing and other early Confucian texts, including The Doctrine of the Mean, The Great Learning, the Mencius and Xunzi, xing 形 is a process involving multidimensional content including not only deliberated decisions and actions, but also attitudes, facial expressions, and even the charisma that possesses power to transform the world. Xing 形 always operates in an effortless natural style, rather than under cognitive control. Xing yu nei signifies that virtues are possessed to a perfectly deep degree. Therefore, “not xing yu nei” does not mean that “behaviors” are forced by external pressure and thus hypocritical, but rather that although they also originate from internal virtues, the virtues in this case are not deep enough to enable multidimensional and natural manifestations. Xing 行, representing the way of the “human,” is the approach to and is on a continuum with “de zhi xing 德之行 (the behavior of Virtue),” which matches the way of Heaven. Shendu 慎 獨 requires paying close attention to and regulating the intentions and emotions emerging at the heart/mind, which is the fundamental work when making the effort of “xing” towards “de zhi xing.”
accepted based solely on this reversal. In the Anhui University slips the graphs corresponding to the xiehou of the received text are written as , which should be transcribed as xing hou (邢)侯 “Marquis of Xing.” Since the archaic Chinese pronunciations of xing hou and xiehou were close, the two
When speaking of pre-Qin Dynasty theories on human nature, past scholars divided Confucius, Mencius and Xunzi into three categories, and they tended to divide the theories into moral categories of good and evil. The discovery of bamboo and silk sheets from this period, however, has offered some valuable literature, providing a historical opportunity for the thorough research of pre-Qin Dynasty theories on human nature. Based on the information on the recently excavated bamboo and silk sheets, especially the essay titled “Xing Zi Ming Chu” on bamboo sheets unearthed in Guodian, this essay examines pre-Qin Dynasty theories on human nature from a new perspective. In doing so, it looks forward to a breakthrough in academic patterns of thought which typically defined pre-Qin Dynasty theories on human nature as good or evil, and thus a closer look at the original appearance of pre-Qin Dynasty theories on human nature as a whole.
Hektor K. T. Yan
By following the Wittgensteinian view that the sense of an ethical term such as “nature” (xing 性) should be understood through an examination of its function in its actual philosophical context, this article takes a look at the notion of xing in the Mencius from an alternative perspective. Proceeding from this perspective, it re-examines the view that xing in the Mencius should be understood in biological terms. A discussion of xing in relation to the “Why be moral?” question follows. I then offer an alternative interpretation of Mencius’ ethics by focusing on the meaning of the ethical particulars. Contrary to common perception, I argue that Mencius’ theory of human nature (renxing 人 性) need not occupy a central place in his moral philosophy; the ultimate foundation of Mencius’ moral philosophy lies in the meaning or sense of morality. Through participating in concrete, ethical thinking and by paying attention to the ethical particulars, human beings develop their grasp of moral and ethical meaning.
Feng Shengjun (馮勝君)
* This article was first published in Chinese as Feng Shengjun 馮勝君, “Tantan Guodian jian Wu xing pian zhong de fei Chu wenzi yinsu” 談談郭店簡《五行》篇中的非楚文字因素, Jianbo 簡帛 1 (2006), 45–52, and has been translated into English by Jiang Wen 蔣文. The author acknowledges that research for this work was
T h e A m e r i c a n Social G o s p e l a n d t h e C h i n e s e Y M C A Jun Xing Colorado State University
As the concluding part of a series of essays on theories of humanity in the Zhuangzi, this essay aims at describing the theme of qing 情 (emotion) as a dual-directional attitude towards qing as a partner to xing 性 (nature) and the influence of this domain of thought on later generations and their continued discussion of it. Faced with a forcible divorce of qing and xing at the hand of Han Dynasty Ruists, which would lock perceptions into a rigid dualist framework, the Wei and Jin period saw authors such as Wang Bi and Ji Kang return to a more faithful rendering of the theme of qing in the classics, the Laozi and Zhuangzi, seeing it become an ever more explicit philosophical topic and beginning a lengthy period of discussion of the theme of qing. In the Northern Song period, representative thinkers Zhang Zai and Wang Anshi The Northern Song tradition constitute a continuance of Pre-Qin Daoist philosophical ideas, providing a logical reinterpretation of the indivisibility of qing and xing from a syncretist approach to the Daoist and Ruist traditions, in a way that drastically differs from the Southern Song preference for xing at the cost of qing, as represented by thinkers such as the Brothers Cheng and Zhu Xi. At the bottom of it, this continued tradition draws from themes that appear in the Zhuangzi, a holistic approach to life and the relationship between humanity and nature, an important and continuous thread in the fabric of human civilisation.
© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2011 DOI : 10.1163/157338211X572861 Early Science and Medicine 16 (2011) 218-251 www.brill.nl/esm Understanding the Planets in Ancient China: Prediction and Divination in the Wu xing zhan Christopher Cullen Needham Research Institute * and Darwin College
Xing Liang Chng
Debate , Jörn Rüsen (ed.), 152 – 72 . New York : Berghahn Books , 2002 . Yü , Ying-shih , Zhongguojindaisixiangshishang de Hu Shi 中國近代思想史上的胡適 , Taipei : Lianjing , 2007 . Zhuang, Xing Liang 莊興亮 (Chng Xing Liang), “Chen Jian’s (1497–1567) Discussions on Early Ming History in
Ke Chung Kim, Ho-Yeon Han and Xing-Jian Wang
Revision of Cornutrypeta Han & Wang, a new tephritid genus proposed for Oriental and Palaearctic species (Diptera: Tephritidae) HO-YEON HAN, XING-JIAN WANG and KE CHUNG KIM A new genus, Cornutrypeta Han & Wang, is proposed for nine Palaearctic and Orien- tal tephritid species with enlarged male