Leviticus at Qumran

Text and Interpretation


Robert Kugler and Kyung S. Baek

In Leviticus at Qumran: Text and Interpretation Robert A. Kugler and Kyung S. Baek provide an indispensable reference work for understanding how the Book of Leviticus shaped the people of Qumran and their texts. Focusing on issues central to the Qumran community’s identity—sacrifice, priesthood, purity, and holiness—Leviticus played a pivotal role in the group’s self-understanding.

The volume presents all of the texts of Leviticus from Qumran with their variants (with contributions from Eugene Ulrich and Peter Flint), lists over three hundred and fifty uses of Leviticus in the scrolls from Qumran, and provides brief summaries of each of those uses. It provides all the data necessary to explore how Leviticus shaped the people of the scrolls.


A Commentary on Leueitikon in Codex Vaticanus


Mark Awabdy

In Leviticus Awabdy offers the first commentary on the Greek version of Leviticus according to Codex Vaticanus (4th century CE), which binds the Old and New Testaments into a single volume as Christian scripture. Distinct from other LXX Leviticus commentaries that employ a critical edition and focus on translation technique, Greco-Roman context and reception, this study interprets a single Greek manuscript on its own terms in solidarity with its early Byzantine users unversed in Hebrew. With a formal-equivalence English translation of a new, uncorrected edition, Awabdy illuminates Leueitikon in B as an aesthetic composition that not only exhibits inherited Hebraic syntax and Koine lexical forms, but its own structure and theology, paragraph (outdented) divisions, syntax and pragmatics, intertextuality, solecisms and textual variants.

David Rothstein

with a brief discussion of Lev 21:9, as understood by various ancient and modern students of Leviticus, and then proceed to analyze the formulation of Tg. Onq. and the evidence of the Samaritan Targum (ST) and tafsir traditions. As part of its legislation intended to ensure the sanctity of priests

The Jubilee from Leviticus to Qumran

A History of Interpretation


John Bergsma

The observation of the Jubilee Year 2000 by many Christian groups worldwide generated renewed interest in the theological, historical, and socio-economic aspects of the biblical jubilee. This book begins with an analysis of the historical origins of the jubilee institution in ancient Israel, and then traces the reinterpretation of the jubilee and the text of Leviticus 25 through the Old Testament, the Second Temple literature, and the Qumran documents. It demonstrates that, with the passage of time, the socio-economic implementation of the jubilee is increasingly de-emphasized in favor of an eschatological interpretation, in which the jubilee itself functions as a type of the final age, and cycles of jubilee years are employed to calculate when this age will arrive.

Drew Longacre

University of Kentucky, and in 2015 the IAA announced that Seales had succeeded in virtually unwrapping the charred remains, revealing two legible columns from the beginning of Leviticus until Lev 2:11. The beginning of Leviticus was preserved on the innermost layers after a blank space for handling the


Matthew S. Goldstone

In The Dangerous Duty of Rebuke Matthew Goldstone explores the ways in which religious leaders within early Jewish and Christian communities conceived of the obligation to rebuke their fellows based upon the biblical verse: “Rebuke your fellow but do not incur sin” (Leviticus 19:17). Analyzing texts from the Bible through the Talmud and late Midrashim as well as early Christian monastic writings, he exposes a shift from asking how to rebuke in the Second Temple and early Christian period, to whether one can rebuke in early rabbinic texts, to whether one should rebuke in later rabbinic and monastic sources. Mapping these observations onto shifting sociological concerns, this work offers a new perspective on the nature of interpersonal responsibility in antiquity.

The Book of Leviticus

Composition and Reception


Edited by Rolf Rendtorff and Robert Kugler

This volume examines the formation, final form, themes, and interpretation of the Book of Leviticus. Contributors include well-known experts on Leviticus: Baruch Levine, Jacob Milgrom, Graeme Auld, Andreas Ruwe, and James Watts address Leviticus in its compositional and literary context; Alfred Marx, Mary Douglas, Walter Houston, and Adrian Schenker treat issues of cult and sacrifice; and Rene Peter-Contesse, Lester Grabbe, and Calum Carmichael discuss Leviticus on the priesthood. A groundbreaking section on Leviticus in translation and interpretation includes essays by Sarianna Metso and Eugene Ulrich, Martin McNamara, David Lane, Peter Flint, Robert Kugler, Bruce Chilton, Hannah Harrington, Gerhard Bodendorfer, Linda Schearing, and Judith Romney Wegner. These essays will serve students of Leviticus well for long time to come.


Edited by John W. Rogerson

Practice Interpretation takes the everyday social conditions of people as they are described in the Bible and looks at emerging issues that confront interpreters in daily life. The latest volume in the Practice Interpretation series deals with a much-neglected but fascinating part of the Bible, the book of Leviticus.

The book opens with an introduction by J.W. Rogerson.

Philip Davies attempts to uncover the main theme of Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy, concluding that the portrait of the ideal Israel in each gives the perspective respectively of a priest, a military commander and a lawyer. In his second essay he explores the enigmatic figure of Azazel in the atonement ritual of Leviticus 16. What parallels are there with the New Testament account of the Passion of Jesus?

John Rogerson studies the term niddah in relation to the menstruating woman in Leviticus 15, concluding that we must revise our ideas and practice about impurity in the Old Testament. His second study, of the sources and compilation of Leviticus 19, suggests that we must revise our ideas and practice about holiness.

John Vincent deals with the relationship between the Jubilee legislation in Leviticus and the ministry of Jesus, drawing conclusions for the nature of Christian discipleship today.

Noel Irwin looks at Leviticus 19 in relation to John Wesley's view of practical holiness and his interest in the Letter of James. John Davies views Leviticus 25 from the point of view of his experience of working in apartheid South Africa.


Wilfried Warning

This study explores the vocabulary employed in the extant text of Leviticus. The chosen methodology of rhetorical analysis (with particular emphasis upon terminological patterns) shows a carefully composed text.
The basic working hypothesis that Leviticus has been artistically structured around 37 divine speeches 'and the Lord spoke/said to Moses (and Aaron)' . With chapter 16 as its possible structural and theological center has been substantiated both on the microstructural and macrostructural levels.
The plethora of significant micro- and macrostructural terminological patterns, suggests original literary cohesiveness and hence single-handed authorship. These findings are of special significance regarding so-called "P" and "H" passages, a "layer of priestly reworking", and, even more, the exegesis and theology of Leviticus.



The Peshiṭta of Leviticus deals with the Syriac (Peshiṭta) text of Leviticus, discussing presuppositions of the manuscripts' scribes as well as the intentions of the translator.
Its starting point is the critical edition of the Leiden Peshiṭta (Brill, 1991).
The first part of the book examines the variant readings of the manuscripts, assessing their use in the Leiden Peshiṭta, and evaluating their interpretative significance. The second part considers causes of resemblance and difference in Peshiṭta, Targum, and LXX interpretation, ending with comments on other printed Leviticus editions, and the origins of the version.
This volume is of particular interest as a study of translation, and the relating of a text to its church origin and context.