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Miroslav Mareš

Introduction Since they first came into being, fascism and National Socialism have been the ideological basis of certain separatist movements. This is also true of part of the Moravian movement that has been active on the territory of today’s Czech Republic. This article identifies the basic

Graf, Friedrich Wilhelm and Nicolaisen, Carsten

[German Version] National Socialism as a political movement was born in Munich in 1919 with the founding of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party) appealing to a nationalistic and anti-Semitic lower middle class. Under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, it soon gained a following

Behrenbeck, Sabine

, as well as to the unconditional sacrificial readiness of the belief of their followers, thus demonstrate numerous similarities to religious systems, that they are also designated as → political religions. Besides the Communist → veneration of persons, it is especially National Socialism that ranks as

Julia A. Ireland

Scandalous . It is the single word most often used to characterize Heidegger’s 1935 reference in Introduction to Metaphysics 1 to the “inner truth and greatness of n.s . [National Socialism].” 2 The consistency with which it is deployed by nearly everyone writing on Heidegger’s politics

Matthew Kott

National Socialisms as a Fascist Sub-Genus Of the vast and growing corpus of scholarly and popular literature on national socialism – usually pertaining to Nazi Germany – very rarely is this fundamental concept defined. The reasons for this could be twofold. Firstly, it might be assumed as self

Terje Emberland

. From its debut in 1935 to its last issue in 1945, Ragnarok was the most radical national socialist publication in Norway. Before the occupation in 1940, the journal was politically independent and regarded it as its chief mission to criticize all half-hearted imitators of National Socialism within

Mommsen, Hans

[German Version] Resistance to National Socialism included measures and actions aiming to overthrow the Nazi system together with actions to save Jews and other persecuted groups. Resistance fell into four phases. From 1933 to 1938, it came from groups that formed around parties and organizations

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Horst Junginger

The study of religion under the spell of fascism has not received due attention. One reason for the noticeable lack of interest was the political involvement of many historians of religions. Among those who had good reason to leave the era of fascism untouched, we find prominent figures in the field. Another obstacle to examining the past impartially has been the connection with religious and other worldviews which render historical accounts in the study of religion an intricate matter. The articles in this volume provide evidence of the great complexity of the problems involved. Laying the groundwork in many cases, they shed new light on a dark and poorly-lit era of the academic study of religion in Europe.

Christianity and Resistance in the 20th Century

From Kaj Munk and Dietrich Bonhoeffer to Desmond Tutu

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Edited by Dosenrode

How is the Christian supposed to act when his or her government misbehaves? Should one suffer and obey the authority, or should one render resistance; and if so, should it be passive or active; and if active, should it be violent or not? This book will not provide the answer to this question, but it will describe and analyse important persons of the 20th century who were placed in a situation where they did not merely 'turn the other cheek', but felt that they had to resist a regime; a decision which had consequences for them all. Thus the book provides insight to a central and current question of Christian and indeed religious thinking.

Mikael Nilsson

century. One article, written by Frederick K. Wentz, was published in the American journal Church History in 1962, and in it Wentz investigates three Catholic journals and their reactions to National Socialism between 1933 and 1937 (but attitudes to communism and Italian Fascism are also mentioned). The