With China’s economic boom, continuous political stability, and increasing influence, it is time to ask if the trajectories of the Chinese Revolution--its troubled interaction with the world market, its national independence movements, its pursuit of egalitarianism, communism, and socialism, and its post-socialist reform—could be understood as a meaningful and consistent historical experience. It is important now to see how China’s past efforts have contributed or obstructed its progress since the Qing empire was thrust into the international system of nation-states in the late 19th century. This series aims to place the study of China in the contexts of the international system of nation-states, global capitalist and market expansion, imperialist rivalry, the Cold War, and recent waves of economic globalization. It welcomes analytical attempts to frame intellectual, historical, and cultural analysis conducive to dialectical relations between these categories. Ideas will not be studied in the abstract but be set in motion and intertwined with praxis through analysis of historical contexts and enriched by close analysis of aesthetic texts, such as literature, narratives, and phenomena of everyday life.
Since they first came into being, fascism and NationalSocialism have been the ideological basis of certain separatist movements. This is also true of part of the Moravian movement that has been active on the territory of today’s Czech Republic. This article identifies the basic
[German Version] NationalSocialism as a political movement was born in Munich in 1919 with the founding of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi Party) appealing to a nationalistic and anti-Semitic lower middle class. Under the leadership of Adolf Hitler, it soon gained a following
From a tradition of sojourning, Chinese overseas have established communities around the world that have contributed to the development of China as well as of the countries they have made their homes. There has also grown a new consciousness of identity following the emergence of China as a modern state and the expansion of a global economy. This series aims to study the people and institutions that shaped these identities and how these entities interact with other people, institutions, and communities. It seeks to bring together scholarly work that examines the spectrum of historical experiences, the writings that capture the quality of migrant lives, and the manifold responses to changing social environments.
Nazi Propaganda Periodicals in the Library of the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research Source materials on modern German anti-semitism, National Socialism and the Holocaust
In his award winning work,
The Jewish Enemy: Nazi Propaganda During World War II and the Holocaust (Harvard University Press, 2006), Professor Jeffrey Herf of the University of Maryland wrote: “During World War II anyone in Nazi Germany who regularly read a newspaper, listened to the radio, or walked past the Nazi political posters between 1941 and 1943 knew of the threats and boasts of the Nazi regime about intentions to exterminate European Jews, followed by public assertions that it was implementing that policy. Claims of ignorance regarding the murderous intentions and assertions of making good on such threats defy the evidence, logic, and common sense. With confidence we can say that millions and millions of Germans were told on many occasions that the Jews had begun a war to exterminate the Germans, but that the Nazi regime was exterminating the Jews instead.”
Now in this new collection of
Nazi Propaganda Periodicals from the Library of the YIVO Institute for Jewish Research we are able to explore these themes in greater detail. Of the approximate 6100 volumes that comprise YIVO’s unique Nazi Propaganda Collection, 1293 where made available on microfiche (
Nazi Propaganda Literature in 2002. The new installment adds approximately 300 journals and newspaper titles to that collection.
Included in this new collection are a number of extremely rare publications from Nazi occupied Europe including, for example,
Donareuropa published in Budapest from 1941–1944;
Volk in Osten published in Bucharest, Romania (1941); the complete runs of the
Verordungsblatt for Bohemia, Moravia and Luxembourg; two years of the
Italien Beobachter (Rome, 1937–1938) and the Zurich based
Schweizerische Monatshefte (1940–1944), among other titles. Altogether the
Nazi Propaganda Periodicals collection includes materials from 17 countries, 14 of which were under direct Nazi occupation. While the vast majority of the publications are in German there are a significant number of French, Latvian, Estonian, and Russian titles, reflecting Nazi attempts to secure the cooperation of local populations.
As Zachary M. Baker, Reinhard Curator of Judaica and Hebraica at Stanford University pointed out in 1997, “the significance of YIVO’s Nazi propaganda collection lies not merely in its size, but also in the rarity –in numerous cases, the uniqueness –of the items it encompasses. Many of the titles in the collection are found in only a few American libraries.”
Carl J. Rheins, Ph.D., Executive Director YIVO Institute for Jewish Research
, as well as to the unconditional sacrificial readiness of the belief of their followers, thus demonstrate numerous similarities to religious systems, that they are also designated as → political religions. Besides the Communist → veneration of persons, it is especially NationalSocialism that ranks as
Latin American Twentieth-Century Pamphlets, Part 3 (APC-3) Brazil, Bolivia, Colombia, Ecuador, Peru, Venezuela, Guyana, and Suriname
Brazil The collection is rich in source material for Brazil (664 pamphlets), a country that Robert Alexander visited from 1965-1966 traveling to 21 of the 22 states. The bulk of the collection is from the year 1960.The Brazilian pamphlets constitute a wealth of materials published by non-governmental and government organizations as well as political parties such as the
Liga Defensa Paulista, el Sindicato dos Trabalhadores, Cruzada por Infancia, Fundacao Getulio Vargas, Sindicato dos Oficiais Alfaiates, Costureiras e Trabalhadores na Industria de Confeccoes, Partido dos Trabalhadores, Impresa Nacional, Imprensa Oficial, Departamento Nacional do Café, the Instituto Nacional do Pinho, Partido Comunista de Brasil, and the
Federacao Brasileria Pelo Progresso Femenino. The Brazilian materials include documentation on a wide variety of subjects, such as: history, coffee, mines and metallurgic industries, commerce, public administration, economic development, immigration, indigenous peoples, feminism, and the black population in Brazil. Of note are the
Historia da revolta de Novembro de 1891, a 90 page publication published in 1895 and written by Jose de Mello,
Ray Barbosa e seus detractores, written by Orlando Ferreira and published in 1921,
Estatutos de la Uniao Universitaria Femenina, published by the
Uniao Universitaria Femenina in 1929 and
O despertar de una nacao, written by Almirante A. Thompson and published in 1934 by the
Centro Espiritista Redentor.
Colombia Colombia is represented by 151 pamphlets published during the period 1932-1994. Some of the topics represented in this section are labor, history, coffee, feminism, cities, economic development, human rights, agrarian reform, socialism, violence, guerrilla warfare, and political parties. Of note are the
Boletín de Acción Social, published in 1945 by the Acción Social political party and describing the purpose of developing cooperatives,
Arbitramento del Río Magdalena, published in 1946 and explaining the process of arbitration on navigation on the Magdalena River,
La mujer colombiana lucha por una nueva patria, written by Marina Goenaga in 1955,
Mensaje al pueblo Colombiano (1957), written by Antonio García and discussing the lack of democracy and human rights in Colombia, and
El sacerdote colombiano: Camilo Torres Réstrepo mártir de la causa Cristiana (1969), published by the
Unión Internacional de Juventudes Demócrata-Cristianas. Torres Réstrepo, pioneer of the Theology of Liberation movement joined the
Ejército de Liberación Nacional, the Colombian guerrilla group and died in 1966.
Bolivia Bolivia is represented with 250 pamphlets, spanning the period of 1920-1992, with the bulk of the collection from the 40s and 50s. This section is a rich source for the study of political movements and economic development. Other topics covered by this section are labor, human rights, finance, education, land reform, the Church and indigenous population. Of note is
Hacia la unidad de las izquierdas bolivianas, a 1939 pamphlet published by
Frente de la Izquierda Revolucionaria (FIB) and describing the statement of purpose and general ideology of the FIB. Two other noteworthy publications are
Los fusilamientos del 20 de noviembre de 1944 (1952) by Armando Arce, who analyzes the events leading up to November 20 1944, and
Frente de Liberación Nacional (1953) by Jorge La Fuente, a member of the Communist Party. This pamphlet deals with the establishment of a National Liberation Front in Bolivia. The Bolivia section also features
Adela y Benito of unknown date, a basic reading lesson from the adult education program of the
Confederación Universitaria Boliviana.
Ecuador The Ecuador section is a fairly small one with 66 pamphlets spanning the years 1922 to 1982. Some of the topics included are socialism, immigration, workers, history, economic development and indigenous affairs. Among the titles included are a copy of
Bases del "P.S.E." published in 1938 by the Socialist Party and written by L. Maldonado Estrada,
Segundo congreso de indios ecuatorianos published in 1946 by
Federación Ecuatoriana de Indios, and
Liberación Popular: manifiesto published in 1963 by the
Partido del Pueblo para la Revolución Social.
Peru This section contains 258 pamphlets dating from 1918-1996 with the bulk of the pamphlets dating from 1960. The good part of the section is related to the APRA movement or Aprismo. Victor Raúl Haya de la Torre (1895-1979) was the founder and leader of
Alianza Popular Revolucionaria Americana (APRA), a Latin American anti-imperialist movement, and he was the principal theorist of Aprismo. Haya de la Torre spent most of his adult life in jail, in exile, or in hiding, even thought he was presidential candidate on three occasions. Of note in this section is
Cancionero Aprista, of unknown date, a booklet of Aprista songs. Furthermore a collection of letters from Haya de la Torre to Aprista political prisoners, entitled
Cartas de Haya de la Torre a los prisioneros Apristas published in 1946. Other subjects included in this section are: agrarian reform, finance, industries, politics and government, violence, feminism, education, indigenous population, and literature. It also features a collection from 1970 of excerpts from letters from the great poet César Vallejo to Pablo Abril and published by the
Juventud Comunista Peruana entitled
César Vallejo a Pablo Abril: en el drama de un epistolario, and
Flora Tristán la precursora written by Magda Portal and published in 1945. Tristán’s pen name was Flore-Celestine Therèse Henriette Tristán Moscoso, a writer and socialist and precursor of feminism in Latin America for her radical ideas and involvement in the French workers struggles for justice.
Venezuela Robert J. Alexander became a good friend of Venezuelan president Rómulo Betancourt and his government and in 1981 published a biography of Betancourt, who died shortly before the book's publication. It explains the large number of 515 pamphlets in this section spanning the years from 1930 to 1992. The bulk of the pamhlets are from the 1960s. They deal with a wide variety of topics within the social sciences such as: politics and government, industries, elections, unions, agriculture, religion, land reform, education, and foreign relations. A variety of political personalities are covered: Rómulo Betáncourt himself, as well as Andrés Eloy Blanco, Raúl Leoni, Rafael Caldera, Enrique Tejera París and Gonzalo Barrios. Important organizations in this section include
Partido Acción Democrática, Sindicato de Trabajadores de la Compañía Anónima Nacional de Teléfonos, Federación de Trabajadores del Distrito Federal y el Estado Miranda, Junta Revolucionaria de Gobierno, Federación Campesina de Venezuela, Organización de la Regional Interamericana de Trabajadores, Partido Sociocristiano, and
Unión Republicana Democrática. Of note are
El peligro de la intervención en Venezuela published in 1930 by P.J. Jugo Delgado,
Qué es el "Frente Nacional Anticomunista published in 1945 by Valmore Rodríguez, a journalist and labor organizer,
Carta de Rómulo Gallegos a Antonio Arraiz, a letter written in 1947 by Gallegos, the famous writer and author of Doña Barbara to Arraiz, a poet, writer and journalist, director of Ahora newspaper and co-founder and director of
El Nacional newspaper,
Discurso de clausura de la Asamblea Nacional Constituyente published in 1947 by Andrés Eloy Blanco, a poet and politician and member of
Generación del 28 and president of the Constituent National Assembly during Betancourt’s government, the
Estatutos generales of the Círculo Obrero de Carácas published in 1948, and finally
El rostro de mi patria, a reading and writing textbook for first and second grades from 1960.
Guyana & Suriname The
Guyana section features 118 documents from 1949 to 1986. It is an excellent source for documents published by the People’s Progressive Party (PPP). The Indo-Guyanese Cheddie Jagan, emerging victorious after the elections of 1953, founded the PPP in 1950. This section documents the years before and after Guyana’s independence in 1966. Of note are the publications People's Progressive Party:
Manifesto Programme & Policy from 1957,
Independence now! published in 1960 by the Peoples’ Progressive Party, and The first 100 days published in 1965, a celebration of the first hundred days of the People’s National Congress. Topics covered in this section range from political parties, union, workers, history, the socialist movement, education, tourism, and economic development. The
Suriname section includes 14 pamphlets, mostly bank annual reports spanning the years 1957 to 1980.
Languages Predominantly Spanish and Portuguese but also English and a few titles in French or Dutch.
Location of originals Special Collections and University Archives, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.
Poalei Zion Archive, held by the Russian Centre of Conservation and Study of Records for Modern History (formerly the Central Party archive) in Moscow, is now available for the first time in convenient, fully indexed microfiche format from IDC Publishers. We offer this archive collection on microfiche together with an electronic guide in two languages. This archive material, which has been inaccessible for the last 70 years (being assigned to the category of secret documents), is now available for research.
Poalei Zion (Labour Zionism) in Russia and the USSR Poalei Zion was one of the organizations in the worldwide Zionist movement which, unlike the others, made active use of the slogans of Socialism. The
Poalei Zion groups emerged in Russia in 1890 as clandestine organizations, were legalized following the revolution of 1917, and were active in the USSR until 1928 when the NKVD (forerunner of the KGB) arrested many members of these organizations. Their basic goal was to create a Jewish national state and to move Jews from all over the world to Palestine. In order to fulfil the emigrants' political aims, the
Jewish Social-Democratic (from 1923, “Communist”)
Labour Party of Poalei Zion organized a vast network of Jewish
Poalei-Zionist clubs, libraries, schools, trade unions, cooperatives and cultural centres, and published numerous newspapers, journals, brochures and books in the printing houses of Moscow, Petrograd, Kiev, Minsk, Odessa and Berdichev.
Hidden archive collection The
Poalei Zion documents now in the Central Party Archive were received from the
Archive of Revolution and Foreign Policy in the 1930s, and from the Kiev Provincial Historical Archive in the 1940s. Part of the material came directly from the KGB Archive in Lubianka in recent years. The NKVD confiscated the documents of
Poalei Zion for use as evidence in the 1920s, when many members of this organization were arrested.
fond 272 "Poalei Zion organizations in the USSR (1917-1928)" was not processed and the documents were kept simply in unordered piles. Only in 1987 were the documents completely systematized in 758 files and described in three inventories (
opisi). However, even then the
fond did not enter scholarly circulation, since it was still assigned to the category of secret documents. Only since 1990 have researchers been able to study the documents of
Various historical materials The
Archive of Poalei Zion sheds light on various issues of social history: the emigration of the Jewish population of various countries to Palestine and the activities of various Jewish parties and organizations.
• It includes the documents of Jewish political parties and organizations such as the
Jewish Social-Democratic (from 1923, 'Communist')
Labour Party of Poalei Zion (Russian abbreviation: ESDRP - EKRP Poalei Zion); the
Jewish Communist Party of Poalei Zion (EKP Poalei Zion); the
United Jewish Socialist Labour Party; the
Jewish Party of Socialist-Territorialists; the
Jewish Socialist (from 1923, “Communist”)
Union of Working Youth (
Ugend Poalei Zion) affiliated with the first two parties listed above; the
Central Jewish Club, and also of the
Palestine Labour Foundation, etc.
• The archive includes works and correspondence of prominent leaders of the World Zionist movement, among them two Israeli presidents (born in Eastern Europe) Ben Gurion and Ben Zvi; B. Borokhov, the ideologist of Russian Zionism; as well as by other figures active in the Palestine movement.
• The archive contains a large collection of national and local newspapers and journals, which now have great rarity value.
• In addition to political literature, there are also works of creative artistic writing, for instance a collection of poetry by the well-known poet David Hofstein, with illustrations by Marc Chagall (1922).
• Volumes or other collections of documents located in the central state archives of the USSR; works prepared for publication in 1926-1927, including
Iz istorii Evreiskoi kommunisticheskoi rabochei partii (
From the History of the Jewish Communist Labour Party), and
O poalei-tsionistskoi mysli za 20 let (
On Poalei-Zionist Thought over 20 Years).
• Special sheets of signatures have been preserved, as have postage stamps, lottery tickets and receipt books showing specific sums received from organizations and individuals.
Most of the material (55-60%) is in Yiddish, 20-25% in Russian, and 15-20% in Hebrew. There are several documents in either German, French, Arabic, Ukrainian or Polish. The Yiddish documents have been annotated and the annotations are attached to the corresponding materials. There are no
Poalei Zion documents from before 1917 in
RTsKhIDNI The Russian Centre of Conservation and Study of Records for Modern History,
Rossiiskii tsentr khraneniia I izucheniia dokumentov noveishei istorii, or
RTsKhIDNI), founded in October 1991, is the custodian of the extensive archival collections of the former Central Party archive. From 1920 until 1991 the Central Party Archive existed as an integral part of the scholarly research centre of the Russian Communist Party, which was known as the Institute of Marxism-Leninism (
Institut Marksizma-Leninizma) in Moscow.
The centre possesses the richest collection of documents and materials on the social and political history of Russia and many countries in Europe, Asia and America. It contains more than 1.6 million files, 9,300 photos and 28,000 feet of film. Here are to be found the documents of various political parties, (both social-democratic and communist), and international organizations, the correspondence of well-known political figures, and historical evidence of the French revolution of the eighteenth century, the 1848 revolutions in Europe and the First, Second and Third Internationals.
Latin American Twentieth-Century Pamphlets, Part 1 (APC-1) The Southern Cone Countries
Archive of Robert J. Alexander This collection is primarily based on the personal archive of Robert J. Alexander. Robert Alexander (1918– ), professor of economics at Rutgers University for over fifty years, traveled throughout the region hundreds of times, and is the author of forty-five books, and numerous editions, book chapters, articles and reviews.
Apart from the interviews, the most historically significant items in the Robert J. Alexander archive are the approximately 6,000 pamphlets, many of which are rare or unique.
He kept the pamphlets on shelves in his offices and his home, roughly divided by subjects such as labor, communism and socialism, and like his interviews and subject files, made them available to researchers.
Inspired by Professor Alexander’s example, colleagues and students began to donate material they themselves had collected to his archives. In this spirit, at Rutgers University Libraries, we have added other similar, relevant materials to Professor Alexander’s pamphlet collection. Notably, the Frances R. Grant Papers contained a number of pamphlets, particularly documenting human rights and culture in Latin America. Frances Grant (1896-1993) was a journalist, cultural ambassador and advocate of human rights, who served for over thirty-five years as Secretary General of the Inter-American Association for Democracy and Freedom (IADF), of which Alexander was a founding member. The IADF was a network of centrist individuals and groups which outspokenly opposed both communism and fascism, and advocated for human rights, civil liberties and the betterment of social and economic conditions in Latin America.
The collection also contains contributions from Professor Alexander’s colleagues at Rutgers, such as the late professor of Italian, Remigio U. Pane, and Samuel L. Baily, professor of history. In addition, Rutgers received a number of rare pamphlets from Cuba and the Dominican Republic with the papers of the late Harry Kantor, professor at the University of Florida. Most recently, Argentinian novelist and Rutgers faculty member Tomás Eloy Martínez has donated rare pamphlets which he used as background for his books
The Perón Novel (1988) and
Santa Evita (1996).
Scope The scope of the collection is wide: it spans the period from the early 1900s to the 1990s, although the bulk dates from the 1940s to the mid-1980s. Latin American is defined in the broadest sense, as encompassing all countries and colonial dependencies of the Caribbean, Central America, and South America, including English, French, and Dutch-speaking areas. About three-quarters of the pamphlets are in Spanish or Portuguese, while the remainder are in English, with a few in French or Dutch.
Most of the pamphlets date from the fraught years of the Cold War, a time when Latin America often served as a battleground between the United States and the Soviet Union over global hegemony. This was also a period of unprecedented industrial growth, economic development, and intense political debate in many parts of Latin America. Labor unions, the military, agricultural workers, and political parties of the left, right and center, all participated in the process.
Latin American Twentieth-Century Pamphlets is particularly strong in its documentation of labor unions–including constitutions and collective bargaining agreements for workers in numerous industries–and for its representation of diverse political opinion. Although he was himself a convinced anti-communist liberal who developed close personal ties with such like-minded leaders as Venezuelan president Rómulo Betancourt, Alexander collected material from all points of view–communism and socialism are especially well represented. Other important subjects include agriculture, the arts, the Catholic Church, civil liberties, finance, foreign relations, human rights, indigenous peoples, industrialization, land reform, race relations, trade, women’s rights, and many others.
The Southern Cone Countries Argentina Part I is particularly rich in source material for Argentina (640 pamphlets) and Chile (598 pamphlets), two of the countries Robert Alexander visited on his initial trip to South America in 1947. As well as documenting the regime of Juan Perón and his wife Eva Duarte de Perón, the subject of Robert Alexander’s
The Perón Era (1951), the collection includes rare publications by groups suppressed by Perón, such as the Comité Obrero de Acción Sindical Independiente de Argentina (C.O.A.S.I), and the communist, socialist and anarchist parties.
Of particular significance are labor union materials such as collective bargaining agreements and union convention proceedings. Both the Argentinian and Chilean materials include documentation of a wide variety of individual industries, including, in Argentina, cement, food service, grain, metals, oil, printing and engraving, railroads, shoes, and textiles. Other important subjects include agriculture, anti-Semitism, the armed forces, the Catholic Church, civil liberties, foreign relations, immigration, indigenous peoples, Nazism, trade, and women’s employment. Also included are biographies and writings of important figures such as Juan B. Justo, founder of the Argentinian Socialist Party, and Arturo Frondizi, President from 1958 to 1962. Among the more unusual items is
Los Elegidas (1969), a biography of Eva Perón in cartoon format. Although the collection contains a few items from the early twentieth century and a few from as late as 1991, its greatest strength of the collection lies in its documentation of the era in which Juan Perón and his party dominated Argentinian politics (1943-1976).
Chile The Chilean pamphlets, which span the period 1911-1993, are particularly strong in documentation of the 1940s, when Robert Alexander visited practically every factory in the country while doing research for his dissertation.
The collection includes many trade union and factory publications detailing laws governing working conditions and benefits. Among the industries documented are copper mining, fishing, forestry, the maritime trades, nitrates, power, railroads, tobacco, and wine-making. The collection also contains rich documentation of the period of Eduardo Frei’s Christian Democracy (1964-1970) and the rise and bloody overthrow of the socialist government of Salvador Allende (1970-1973). As well as presenting Allende from diverse perspectives, the collection includes documentation of human rights and civil liberties violations under the dictatorship of Augusto Pinochet (1973-1989), such as eyewitness accounts of atrocities and reports on prisons published by international organizations.
Of note are a number of anti-government periodicals, such as the anti-Pinochet newspaper
Cartilla de educación popular, and
La Pobla (1988), which represented slum dwellers against Pinochet.
Paraguay and Uruguay The
Paraguay section, which spans the period 1944-1989, is much smaller in size (69 pamphlets), and mainly focuses on the dictatorship of General Alfredo Stroessner (1954-1989). As well as propaganda issued by Stroessner and his Colorado party, the collection includes exposés of violations of human rights, such as the genocide of the Aché Indians, as expressed in anti-government newspapers like
El Paraguay Libre and the exile publication
Unión Nacional Paraguay. Other topics include the beef industry, the Catholic Church, economic and rural development, labor, political parties, and women’s employment.
Uruguay section is also small, numbering about one hundred pamphlets spanning the period 1908 to 1990. The bulk of the collection dates from the 1940s, and includes numerous publications by political parties ranging from the dominant Partido Nacional and Partido Colorado to the communist and socialist parties. Other documents from this period include union publications and rare manifestos such as
Monopolio y latifundio: Enemigos del progreso del pais (1946), in which workers in the sheep and wool industry attack monopolies and the power of the landed aristocracy. The section also documents the turbulent 1960s in Uruguay, including, for example, publications by the Movement for National Liberation (MLN), the Marxist urban guerilla group commonly known as the Tupamaros.
This collection Twentieth Century Latin American Pamphlets: Part I is an invaluable resource for the study of the political, economic, and social conditions of the Southern Cone countries during the greater part of the twentieth century. The search functions of the database enable researchers to focus on individual countries or regions, or do cross-country comparisons. As well as its expected use by scholars and students of Latin American history, the interdisciplinary nature of the material will attract those studying economics, political science, geography, and sociology. Humanities scholars will find that the collection also documents the arts and culture, which have always been closely engaged with Latin American political and economic life. The microfilm set will be particularly valuable for the rapidly growing field of Latin American labor studies: John French has identified the efforts to organize and disseminate the Robert Alexander archive as an important step in making primary sources available in this field. Most importantly, this project preserves and makes universally accessible a treasure trove of rare and unique material previously only known to a small number of scholars. The many voices of politicians, intellectuals, union leaders, factory workers, and peasants buried in the collection deserve to be heard more widely.
Languages Predominantly Spanish but also English and a few titles in French.
Location of originals Special Collections and University Archives, Rutgers University, New Brunswick, NJ.
Scandalous . It is the single word most often used to characterize Heidegger’s 1935 reference in Introduction to Metaphysics 1 to the “inner truth and greatness of n.s . [NationalSocialism].” 2 The consistency with which it is deployed by nearly everyone writing on Heidegger’s politics