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data, selects the national systems with records of the requested taxa, and send back the data, integrating the answers in an interactive map (fig. 1). Figure 1. Flow-chart of the Spatial Data Infrastructure of the NA2RE project, the New Atlas of Amphibians and Reptiles of Europe, a system of

In: Amphibia-Reptilia
Author: ZHANG Xueliang

This paper develops an empirical model to test the spatial spillover effects of transport infrastructure on economic growth. It uses spatial econometric techniques and provincial panel data of China from 1993 to 2004 to analyze the contribution of transport infrastructure to the economic growth of local province and its spatial spillover effects on the economic growth of other provinces. The main findings include: (1) Transport infrastructure and economic growth of China show an evident pattern of spatial clustering. They largely congregate in developed eastern coastal regions, forming a gradient gradually diminishing from east to west. (2) Output elasticity of local transport infrastructure is 0.106, between the values calculated by early researchers with time series data and panel data. (3) Spatial output spillovers from transport infrastructure are largely positive, but evidences of negative spatial spillovers are also found with population density spatial weights matrix model.

In: Frontiers of Economics in China
Essays in Honor of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002)
The International Ocean Institute-Canada has produced this collection of over 80 insightful essays on the future of ocean governance and capacity development. The book honors the work of Elisabeth Mann Borgese (1918-2002), preeminent ocean advocate and founder of the IOI.
More than 90 leading experts explore future challenges and opportunities for ocean governance and capacity development. Major themes include the law of the sea, ocean sciences, integrated coastal and ocean management, fisheries and aquaculture, communication and negotiations, maritime safety and security, ocean energy, and maritime transportation.
The essay collection is aimed at professionals, students and citizens alike – covering themes that parallel those in the annual Training Program of IOI-Canada. A leading member of the International Ocean Institute's network of centers and focal points worldwide, IOI-Canada was founded by Elisabeth Mann Borgese in 1979.

This paper provides an evidence-based approach to understanding the relationship infrastructure of spatially defined innovation ecosystems in three metropolitan areas. With the Triple Helix framework, the ecosystem perspective, and shared vision for transformation initiatives, we explore relationships as structure in the metropolitan areas of Austin, TX; Minneapolis, MN; and Paris, France. Network metrics are interpreted as indicators of relational capital; and network visualizations reveal distinct patterns of relational space that structure business ecosystems at the enterprise, growth, and startup levels in each geographic area. We illustrate that network metrics, relationship indicators, and their visualization can be valuable resources for quantitatively and qualitatively investigating and analyzing the complexities of engagement, agility, vitality, linking, and embeddedness in innovation ecosystems. We suggest that data-driven indicators of relational capital may be used for network orchestration, evidence-based policy, and the development of shared vision in spatially defined business ecosystems.

In: Triple Helix

rules and procedure for access to government information.  [Act on Infrastructure for Digital Spatial Data] Lög um grunngerð fyrir stafrænar landupplýsingar, Nr. 44/2011, effective 13 May 2011. Consolidated and official. Icelandic. Translated: National

In: Foreign Law Guide

of Europe 641 (London: European Law Centre, 1978—). (2001).  [Law establishing infrastructure for geographical and spatial information in the EU] Loi du 26 juillet 2010 portant transposition de la directive 2007/2/CE … établissant une infrastructure d'information géographique dans la Communauté

In: Foreign Law Guide
Authors: Lasse Baaner and Line Hvingel

this area. The digital map is a representation of the legislation built on certain spatial data sets, and in order to exchange and compare these spatial data sets cross borders in Europe, the European Community has established a directive for an infrastructure for spatial information in the Community

In: Journal for European Environmental & Planning Law

).       --  Electronic Communications Act, No. 36 of 2006, Gazette 28743 (18 Apr 2006).   Spatial Data Infrastructure Act, No. 54 of 2003, Gazette 25973 (04 Feb 2004). Electronic information and metadata, sharing and publication of information.   Electronic Communications and Transactions Act, No. 25 of 2002, Gazette

In: Foreign Law Guide


In July 2000 the Danish-Swedish region of Øresund, including the Copenhagen area and the Swedish county of Skåne, was joined by a bridge, cutting the travel time between the two halves down to roughly one-half hour. While the bridge forms the main tangible element in an effort to increase the economic competitiveness of the region, elites recognise that less tangible forms of infrastructure must also be developed. Specifically, regional elites acknowledge that success for the Øresund project rests on their ability to convince regional inhabitants that they share common interests and values. This article shows that such efforts should be considered in light of three factors. First, drawing upon survey data collected in the year since the bridge opened, it shows that there are significant national differences in levels of support for the Øresund process. Second, these national differences are situated in the context of both economic and spatial structure, showing how recent economic crises and the peripheral location of Skåne have contributed to higher Swedish levels of support for development of the Øresund. Finally, it is argued that the election of the new centre-right Danish government, when coupled with the growth of a multi-ethnic Øresund population, has the ability to create tensions for forms of cross-border integration that move beyond consumerism and economic development.

In: Culture and Cooperation in Europe’s Borderland

of the Republic of Korea, English. [Spatial Data Industry Promotion Act] 공간정보산업 진흥법 | GongganJungboSanup JinheungBup, Act No. 14087, 22 Mar 2016 (effective on 23 Mar 2017). National Legal Information Center, http

In: Foreign Law Guide