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The increasingly optimistic period of Xia dynasty (ca. 2100-1600 BCE ) research we now find ourselves in is foreshadowed by over half a century of archeological exploration. 1 It is now generally accepted among academics that the Erlitou 二里頭 culture, or most of it, is Xia culture. 2 However

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In: Journal of Chinese Humanities
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dynasty [ca. 2100-1600 BCE ] ever existed at all. There can be little doubt that this situation is essentially the result of methodological flaws haunting research on Xia culture. As early as 1979, Zou Heng 鄒衡 (1927-2005) pointed out: It has already become rather unlikely that further discoveries of

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In: Journal of Chinese Humanities
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The question of the historicity of the Xia dynasty [ca. 2100-1600 BCE ] may be considered from two perspectives. First, did the Xia dynasty exist? Second, on the whole, are the accounts relating to the Xia dynasty as recorded in ancient texts reliable? This perspective tends to center upon the

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In: Journal of Chinese Humanities
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Undoubtedly, zhongguo in all of the instances above refer to the Western Zhou state. When Sun Yirang 孫詒讓 (1848–1908) of the Qing dynasty (1616–1911) wrote explanatory notes for Mozi 墨子 , he claimed that “ Zhongguo during the early Zhou referred to the Shang and Xia kingdoms, while zhongguo during

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In: Journal of Chinese Humanities