Adams Bodomo and Enyu Ma

2012 ), Guangzhou (Bodomo 2010 ; Li et al. 2009 ; Bertoncello and Bredeloup 2007 ) and Yiwu (Bodomo 2012 ; Bodomo and Ma 2010 ). Of course, historically, Africans have been found in China (Rashidi and van Sertima 1995 ; Wyatt 2009 ), but the numbers have never been as substantial as we witnessed

Yiwu Fang, Xuan Wang, Jianfeng Gu and Hongmei Li

Aphelenchoides rotundicaudatus n. sp. was isolated from packaging wood from South Korea imported to Ningbo harbour, China. Specimens were collected directly from wood samples using the Baermann method. Multiplication on Botryotinia fuckeliana failed. The new species has a body length of 364-509 μm (males) and 371-493 μm (females). The cuticle is weakly annulated and there are four lines in the lateral field. The stylet is 8-9 μm long and has small basal swellings. The excretory pore is located ca one body diam. anterior to median bulb. Spicules are small (10-13 μm), apex and rostrum rounded and only slight offset. The male tail has six (2 + 2 + 2) caudal papillae. Both male and female tails are cylindrical with a broadly rounded terminus, often with a small region of thickened cuticle or a blunt peg ca 1 μm long, particularly in the female. The new species belongs to the Group 1 category of Aphelenchoides species. Phylogenetic analyses based on full length ITS, partial LSU and SSU of rDNA confirmed its status as a new species.

Yiwu Fang, Jianfeng Gu, Xuan Wang and Hongmei Li

Aphelenchoides stellatus n. sp. is described and figured. The new species was isolated from packaging wood from Japan imported to Ningbo harbour, China. The new species has a body length of 485-533 μm (males) and 547-699 μm (females). The cuticle is weakly annulated and there are four lines in the lateral field. The stylet is 9-11 μm long and has small basal swellings. The excretory pore is located posterior to the nerve ring. Spicules smoothly curved, rose-thorn shaped. Apex and rostrum round, only slightly offset, dorsal limb 19-21 μm long. Male tail bearing six (2 + 2 + 2) caudal papillae. The female spermatheca is axial and oblong with round sperm present in multiple rows. Both male and female tail pegs have 3-4 processes, appearing star-like under SEM. The new species belongs to the Group 3 category of Aphelenchoides species. Phylogenetic analyses based on full length ITS and 28S D2/D3 region of rDNA confirmed its morphological status as a new species.

Mehrab Esmaeili, Yiwu Fang, Hongmei Li and Ramin Heydari

Aphelenchoides huntensis sp. n. is described and illustrated from wood and bark samples of a dead scots pine in Kermanshah Province, western Iran. The new species has a body length of 507-673 μm (females) and 636-640 μm (males). The cuticle is weakly annulated with four lateral lines. Lip region offset. The stylet is 9.5 (9.0-10.0) μm long with small basal swellings. The excretory pore is located ca one body diam. posterior to the metacorpus valve. The spicules are large with the dorsal limb 37 or 38 μm long (n = 2), and have a prominent rostrum and rounded apex. The female tail is conical, the terminus having a complicated step-like projection, usually with many tiny nodular protuberances. The male tail bears six (2 + 2 + 2) caudal papillae and a well-developed mucron. The new species belongs to the Group 2 category of Aphelenchoides species. Phylogenetic analysis based on the 18S and 28S D2-D3 regions of rDNA confirmed its status as a new species.

Munawar Maria, Yiwu Fang, Jianfeng Gu and Hongmei Li

Bursaphelenchus parapinasteri is redescribed morphologically and with new molecular characterisation. It was isolated from a dead Pinus thunbergii on Changgang Mountain, Zhoushan Islands, Zhejiang Province, China. Detailed morphology of the spicule, female gonad, hemizonid position, arrangement of male caudal papillae, and female tail terminus shape are documented. The ITS-RFLP patterns and the ITS1/2, partial 28S D2-D3 and partial 18S gene sequences were characterised. The phylogenetic analyses revealed that B. parapinasteri belongs to the hofmanni-group sensu Braasch and is close to B. anamurius, B. hofmanni, B. mazandaranense, B. paracorneolus, B. pinasteri and B. ulmophilus. A diagnostic key to species of the hofmanni-group is presented.

Jianfeng Gu, Marek Tomalak, Jie He and Yiwu Fang

New morphological, molecular and bionomic data are added to update the description of Bursaphelenchus crenati. The nematode was isolated from larval galleries and adults of the Greater ash bark beetle, Hylesinus crenatus Fabricius, present in bark of older trees of European ash, Fraxinus excelsior L., in Poland. Detailed female and male morphology are documented in this paper and compared with the original description. From ITS1/2, partial 28S D2-D3 and partial 18S sequences, ITS-RFLP patterns and morphological analysis, B. crenati is suggested to be temporarily placed into the sexdentati group, close to B. andrassyi, B. vallesianus, B. sexdentati, B. pinophilus, B. poligraphi, B. fuchsi, B. incurvus, B. piniperdae, and B. pityogeni. However, B. crenati can be distinguished from these species by the strongly ventrally curved body and the presence of three incisures in the lateral fields.

Munawar Maria, Jianfeng Gu, Marek Tomalak, Yiwu Fang and Hongmei Li

Ruehmaphelenchus quercophilus n. sp., isolated from a dying oak, Quercus robur, in the State Forests, Łopuchówko District, Poland, is described and figured. It is characterised by three lateral lines, relatively stout body, excretory pore posterior to nerve ring, five caudal papillae, spicules relatively small (12-14 μm) with weakly developed condylus and rostrum, bursa absent, vulva positioned at ca 78% of body length, vulval flap absent, post-uterine branch extending for slightly over half of vulva to anus distance, and conoid tail with a bend at the distal end forming a terminal projection 10-14 μm long. The new species is very similar to four other described species, namely R. formosanus, R. juliae, R. thailandae, and R. sirisus. Detailed phylogenetic analysis based on 18S, 28S D2-D3 and ITS sequences has confirmed the status of this nematode as a new species.

Munawar Maria, Yiwu Fang, Jie He, Jianfeng Gu and Hongmei Li

Bursaphelenchus parantoniae n. sp. isolated in Ningbo, China, from packaging wood made of Pinus sp. imported from Belgium, is described. It is characterised by a slim body (a = 32.6-51), lateral field with two lines, excretory pore located ca one metacorpal length posterior to median bulb, spicules stout and arcuate with triangular rostrum and flattened cucullus, and seven caudal papillae arranged as a single midventral precloacal papilla, one adcloacal pair and two postcloacal pairs. The vagina is inclined anteriorly, a vulval flap is present, the post-uterine branch extends for more than half of the vulva-anus distance, and the female tail is conical with a hyaline region and bluntly rounded terminus. Phylogenetic analyses showed that B. parantoniae n. sp. clusters with the hylobianum-group and appears close to B. antoniae, B. chengi, B. hylobianum and B. niphades. The new species is distinguished from these species by morphology, ITS-RFLP patterns and molecular characters.

Yiwu Fang, Hongmei Li, Munawar Maria and Wim Bert

Pseudaphelenchus zhoushanensis n. sp. was isolated from a dead Pinus thunbergii at Changgang Mountain, Zhoushan Islands, Zhejiang Province, China. It is characterised by the small to medium length body, cuticle slightly annulated, presence of three lateral lines, stylet 9.0-10.7 μm with small but conspicuous basal knobs, excretory pore located from same level as the metacorpus to slightly anterior to metacorpus, true bursa surrounding entire tail but inconspicuous, male tail conical with a single mucron, spicule with distinct condylus and rostrum strongly arcuate to a pointed end, female tail conical with annulation, strongly ventrally bent in distal part of tail, with terminus bluntly pointed or finely mucronate. Phylogenetic analyses using sequences of the18S and 28S D2-D3 regions of rDNA confirmed the status of P. zhoushanensis n. sp. as a new species. Combining the molecular phylogenetic analyses, morphology and biology of P. zhoushanensis n. sp. and Tylaphelenchus jiaae indicates that T. jiaae is a member of Pseudaphelenchus to which it is herein transferred as P. jiaae n. comb. (= T. jiaae).

Jianfeng Gu, Marek Tomalak, Helen Braasch and Yiwu Fang

Summary

New morphological, molecular and bionomic data are added to update the description of Bursaphelenchus eucarpus. The nematode was isolated from larval galleries and adults of the apple bark beetle, Scolytus mali, and the shothole borer, S. rugulosus, present under the bark of the bird cherry, Prunus padus, and the common European plum, P. domestica, in Poland. Detailed male, female and dispersal juvenile morphology and morphometrics are documented and compared with the original description. From partial 18S, ITS1/2 and partial 28S D2-D3 sequences and morphological features (three lateral lines, position of caudal papillae, shape of the delicate spicules with dorsally bent condylus, lack of vulval flap, a long post-uterine branch and a hyaline region at the female tail tip) it can be concluded that B. eucarpus belongs to the eremus group of Bursaphelenchus. The differentiation from related species of the eremus group is discussed.