non-introduced species occurring in the study area. Patterns of species richness were different in amphibians and reptiles as we will further explore in the biogeography section below. Species richness of amphibians was highest in Western-Central Europe, while for reptiles the southern
Neftali Sillero, João Campos, Anna Bonardi, Claudia Corti, Raymond Creemers, Pierre-Andre Crochet, Jelka Crnobrnja Isailović, Mathieu Denoël, Gentile Francesco Ficetola, João Gonçalves, Sergei Kuzmin, Petros Lymberakis, Philip de Pous, Ariel Rodríguez, Roberto Sindaco, Jeroen Speybroeck, Bert Toxopeus, David R. Vieites and Miguel Vences
Maria Auxiliadora Pinto da Motta Amad, Ju-Shey Ho and Carlos Eduardo Falavigna da Rocha
Nineteen genera are currently considered valid in the Ergasilidae. A cladistic analysis was conducted on these genera and the five genera composing the closely allied Vaigamidae. Nineteen morphological characters were selected and polarized using Anthessius (Anthessiidae) as the outgroup. The most parsimonious cladogram (tree length = 60, Consistency Index = 0.50, Retention Index = 0.71), obtained through the use of the BB command in Hennig 86, is composed of eight major clades, with the five vaigamid genera composing the most derived clade. Based on Wiley’s (1981) “sequencing” convention, the five vaigamid genera cannot be placed in a family separate from the Ergasilidae. The biogeography of the ergasilid genera is discussed. Vaigamus spinicephalus is placed separately in a new genus, Pseudovaigamus.
Luciana Weiler, Augusto Ferrari and Jocelia Grazia
K were selected between K = 7 ( K ref = 2.199) and K = 16 ( K ref = 4.491), with a mean of 3.177. Biogeographical analysis Biogeographical methods . Hovenkamp (1997) stated that methods that focus on the biogeography of areas, assume areas of endemism as units, and commonly employ
A.J. de Boer
The viridis group is proposed for a supposedly monophyletic group of seven New Guinean species of the cicada genus Baeturia Stål, 1866. Three species (B. brongersma Blöte, B. rufula Blöte, and B. viridis Blöte) are redescribed and four species (B. furcillata, B. karkarensis, B. lorentzi, and B. turgida) are described as new to science. A key to the males is provided. The phylogenetic position of the viridis group within the genus Baeturia is discussed. The distribution of shared characters suggests a subdivision of the group into two subgroups. One subgroup is restricted to southern and western Irian Jaya, while the other is distributed along the coastal mountain ranges of northern New Guinea, including Karkar Island.
A.J. de Boer
The genus Guineapsaltria is erected for eight species, distributed in New Guinea and northeastern Queensland. Five species are transferred from the genus Baeturia Stål, 1866 and redescribed, viz. G. chinai (Blöte, 1960), G. flava (Goding & Froggatt, 1904), G. pallida (Blöte, 1960),G. stylata (Blöte, 1960), and G. viridula (Blöte, 1960), while three species are described as new to science (G. flaveola n. sp., G. pallidula n. sp., and G. pennyi n. sp.). G. flava is designated as the type species of the genus. Baeturia minuta Blöte, 1960 is synonymized with Guineapsaltria flava. The phylogeny of Guineapsaltria is discussed and some remarks are made on its phylogeneticrelationships with other New Guinean and Australian tibicinid genera. A key to the males and maps of distribution are presented.
David B. Wake
views on topics ranging from phylogeny and morphology to taxonomy and biogeography. Phylogenetics When Gray ( 1850 ) named the Plethodontidae he included within it species currently considered plethodontids from the Americas, Hydromantes (then Geotriton ) from Europe, but also some
Edited by Darren Yeo, Neil Cumberlidge and Sebastian Klaus
Contributors include: Shane T. Ahyong, Klaus Anger, Georgina Bond-Buckup, Ludwig Buckup, Yixiong Cai, Christian Clavijo, Neil Cumberlidge, James M. Furse, Alberto S. Gonçalves, Guillermo Guerao, Alireza Keikhosravi, Sebastian Klaus, Tainã G. Loureiro, Célio Magalhães, Fernando L. Mantelatto, Jose C. E. Mendoza, , Jérôme Prieto, Silke Reuschel, Vitor Q. A. Sanches, Tobias Santl, Sandro Santos, Fabrizio Scarabino, Christoph D. Schubart, Michael Türkay, Ana Verdi, Günter Vogt, and Darren C. J. Yeo
Nicole L. Gunter, Geoff B. Monteith, Stephen L. Cameron and Tom A. Weir
Table S3. Biogeography and ancestral range estimation Ancestral ranges of Australasian scarabaeines were estimated in the R package BioGeography with Bayesian (and likelihood) Evolutionary Analysis of RangeS (BioGeoBEARS) using maximum likelihood methods ( Matzke 2013; 2014 ). Our dataset included a
Cristian R. Altaba
The allozyme data base of Arntzen & García-París (1995) on midwife toads (Alytes, Discoglossidae) is reanalysed considering each locus as a discrete character. The phylogeny thus inferred differs from the one obtained with genetic distances in the position of A. dickhilleni from the Betic region – it appears that its sister species is the widespread A. obstetricans, not the Mallorcan endemic A. muletensis. This phylogenetic hypothesis agrees with the taxonomic treatment of the genus based on morphology. A testable biogeographic hypothesis is proposed to account for the diversification of midwife toads in Iberia and the Balearics. The postulated underlying geological changes were the spread of inland saline lakes that divided Iberia (16 mY B.P.), the emergence and break-up of the Betic orogen (14 mY), and the formation of the Betic Strait (8 mY). Dispersal over sea channels or during the Messinian Crisis (6 mY) are deemed unlikely on the basis of ecological and biogeographical data.
J.W. Arntzen and M. García-París
Three competing phylogenetic hypotheses for the genus Alytes (midwife toads) are evaluated. Based on quantitative coding of protein characters the most parsimonious solution shows a sister taxon relationship for Alytes dickhilleni and A. muletensis. The alternatives in which A. obstetricans has its sister group in either A. dickhilleni or A. muletensis lack support. Using calibrations derived from protein evolutionary rates, the vicariant events giving rise to A. obstetricans and the lineage leading to the A. muletensis and A. dickhilleni clade and the subsequent splitting between A. muletensis and A. dickhilleni cannot be placed much earlier than the Miocene-Pliocene boundary. Biogeographical scenarios invoking an earlier time of divergence should be rejected.