Edited by Alexandra Aikhenvald and Anne Storch

Every language has a way of talking about seeing, hearing, smelling, tasting and touching. In about a quarter of the world's languages, grammatical evidentials express means of perception. In some languages verbs of vision subsume cognitive meanings. In others, cognition is associated with a verb of auditory perception, touch, or smell. 'Vision' is not the universally preferred means of perception. In numerous cultures, taboos are associated with forbidden visual experience. Vision may be considered intrusive and aggressive, and linked with power. In contrast, 'hearing' and 'listening' are the main avenues for learning, understanding and 'knowing'. The studies presented in this book set out to explore how these meanings and concepts are expressed in languages of Africa, Oceania, and South America.

Jeppe Sinding Jensen

© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 DOI: 10.1163/157006810X531102 Method and Theory in the Study of Religion 22 (2010) 322-329 M E T H O D T H E O R Y in the S T U D Y O F R E L I G I O N & Doing it the Other Way Round: Religion as a Basic Case of ‘Normative Cognition’ Jeppe

Cognition Enactment

Beckett’s Molloy Manuscripts and the Reader’s Role in Genetic Criticism

Dirk Van Hulle

-disregarded Rylean themes: embodied and ‘situated’ cognition; your mind is not in your brain; skill is not represented; intelligence without representation—to name only the most obvious” (Dennett qtd. in Ryle 2000, xii). These “hot new directions” are sometimes referred to as 4 E cognition—the embodied, the

Justin E. Lane and F. LeRon Shults

1 The Computational Study of Cognition and Culture This special issue aims to demonstrate the value of computer modeling and simulation (M&S) for studying human cognition and culture. By offering several examples of computational models and social simulations, and discussing the challenges

Rik Peels

Journal of Reformed Theology 4 (2010) 42-69 © Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2010 DOI: 10.1163/156973110X495621 The Effects of Sin upon Human Moral Cognition Rik Peels PhD Student, Utrecht University e-mail: Abstract This article provides an elaborate defense of

Roger O’Shea

This chapter argues toward a position where introspection and inner-speech can be considered cultural values which causally covary with the emergence of human art and material culture. As increasing individualism and awareness-of-self come to define the species, art and material culture become much more significant in this process than language. The result is that Homo sapien group sizes expand exponentially; and resultant sub-groupings, in themselves, become epigenetic niches which determine behaviour outside that which is defined by human DNA. Consequently, there is a larger social pool of extended interactions that is able to define, recognise and re-identify imagery of increasing abstraction and complexity; this then becomes the basis of the incipient culture which allows for development, and social evolution. So culture emerges. This happens, research shows, where parietal and decorative art work appear on the archaeological record, when successive epigenetic niches become established thereby enabling notions of species and self-awareness to develop into cultural forms where recursive interactions then take place between extended consciousness and (brain-bound) processes of cognition. The chapter aims to demonstrate that the effect of epigenetic niches is a relaxation of natural selection (a phenomenon readily observed in domesticated animals) which incurs an increase in reliance on intercultural forms to adhere to the advantageous niches.

Dominik Perler

1 Introduction: Cognition in a Theological Context * It is well known that medieval authors paid close attention to problems concerning human cognition. They wanted to know what kind of cognitive capacities human beings possess, how they use these capacities when producing cognitive acts, and how

Tomoko Sakita

Reporting discourse has attracted rigorous analyses in linguistics, literary theory, cognitive psychology, sociology and ethnomethodology. This book provides analyses of controversial topics in reporting discourse like tense alternation, reporting styles, patterns and functions. After critically examining existing theories, Tomoko I. Sakita offers new theoretical perspectives and empirical analyses within the scope of actual language performance. Her analysis covers tenses that previous studies have neglected or have considered "ungrammatical" or "mistaken". Based on models of cognitive recollection and stream of consciousness, tense reveals cognitive, attitudinal and consciousness state markers in complex reporting processes, as well as identity, speaker psychology, and deictic relations, embedded in discourse and narrative contexts. A synthesis of discourse analysis and experiments on reporting style, structure and functions leads to formulating a new reporting discourse continuum. Reporting discourses emerge as rule-governed, goal-directed, purposeful strategic devices in communication. Sakita shows reporting discourse to be an integral whole formed by speakers' constant interpretations and choices at different stages of information processing, with close interactions among cognitive constraints, discourse organization, contextual information, and communicative purposes. She deepens our insights into the operation of language and cognition, as well as into communication systems and social dynamics, ultimately leading to a better understanding of human behaviour. This should be a useful work not only for linguists and literary specialists but also for readers with serious interest in human reporting behaviour and narrative, or in the dynamic aspects of cognitive operation.

Andreas Nordin

© Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden, 2009 DOI: 10.1163/094330509X12568874557216 Method and Th eory in the Study of Religion 21 (2009) 402-436 M E T H O D T H E O R Y in the S T U D Y O F R E L I G I O N & Good-death Beliefs and Cognition in Himalayan Pilgrimage Andreas Nordin School of

Thomas M. Robinson

It is argued in this paper that the famous “Active Intellect” of De Anima 3.5 is not God, as Alexander of Aphrodisias held, but rather an unchanging, eternally cognizing Intellect which serves as the indispensable condition for the operation of human intellect. It is “at the door” for each individual, ready to flow in as a stream of light—a light which renders potential objects of cognition knowable, just as visible light makes potentially visible objects visible—from outside that door (thyrathen) any time it is opened. Its existence cannot serve, however, as a proof of the immortality of human intellect, since, being unchanging, it can never possess a feature of human intellect which is characterized by nothing if not change, and that is memory.