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Cultural Heritage in the Crosshairs

Protecting Cultural Property during Conflict


Edited by Joris Kila and James Zeidler

The protection of cultural property during times of armed conflict and social unrest has been an on-going challenge for military forces throughout the world even after the ratification and implementation of the 1954 Hague Convention and its two Protocols by participating nations. This volume provides a series of case studies and “lessons learned” to assess the current status of Cultural Property Protection (CPP) and the military, and use that information to rethink the way forward. The contributors are all recognized experts in the field of military CPP or cultural heritage and conflict, and all are actively engaged in developing national and international solutions for the protection and conservation of these non-renewable resources and the intangible cultural values that they represent.

The Protection of the Underwater Cultural Heritage

National Perspectives in Light of the UNESCO Convention 2001 - Second Edition


Edited by Sarah Dromgoole

Destruction of Cultural Heritage in 19th-century France

Old Stones versus Modern Identities


Michael Greenhalgh

Destruction of Cultural Heritage in 19th Century France examines the fate of the building stock and prominent ruins of France (especially Roman survivals) in the 19th century, supported by contemporary documentation and archives, largely provided through the publications of scholarly societies. The book describes the enormous extent of the destruction of monuments, providing an antidote to the triumphalism and concomitant amnesia which in modern scholarship routinely present the 19th century as one of concern for the past. It charts the modernising impulse over several centuries, detailing the archaeological discoveries made (and usually destroyed) as walls were pulled down and town interiors re-planned, plus the brutal impact on landscape and antiquities as railways were laid out. Heritage was largely scorned, and identity found in modernity, not the past.

Cultural Heritage, Cultural Rights, Cultural Diversity

New Developments in International Law


Edited by Silvia Borelli and Federico Lenzerini

Cultural Heritage, Cultural Rights, Cultural Diversity: New Developments in International Law explores the recent evolution of cultural heritage law which has resulted in the emergence of a new international conscience, rooted in the awareness that cultural heritage represents a holistic notion strongly connected with the identity of peoples as well with individual and collective human rights.

Leading international scholars examine the new challenges determined by that evolution, reaching beyond only tangible artistic and monumental expression and paying particular attention to the linkages between cultural heritage, cultural diversity and human rights. As such, Cultural Heritage, Cultural Rights, Cultural Diversity: New Developments in International Law offers a comprehensive and original overview of how the international approach to culture has evolved from a sovereignty-based idea of cultural property to a perception which emphasises the human dimension of cultural heritage.

Indigenous Peoples' Cultural Heritage

Rights, Debates, Challenges

Edited by Alexandra Xanthaki, Sanna Valkonen, Leena Heinämäki and Piia Kristiina Nuorgam

Indigenous rights to heritage have only recently become the subject of academic scholarship. This collection aims to fill that gap by offering the fruits of a unique conference on this topic organised by the University of Lapland with the help of the Office of the High Commissioner for Human Rights. The conference made clear that important information on Indigenous cultural heritage has remained unexplored or has not been adequately linked with specific actors (such as WIPO) or specific issues (such as free, prior and informed consent). Indigenous leaders explained the impact that disrespect of their cultural heritage has had on their identity, well-being and development. Experts in social sciences explained the intricacies of indigenous cultural heritage. Human rights scholars talked about the inability of current international law to fully address the injustices towards indigenous communities. Representatives of International organisations discussed new positive developments. This wealth of experiences, materials, ideas and knowledge is contained in this important volume.

Cultural Heritage Issues

The Legacy of Conquest, Colonization and Commerce

James A.R. Nafziger and Ann M. Nicgorski

The global community, dependent as always on the cooperation of nation states, is gradually learning to address the serious threats to the cultural heritage of our disparate but shared civilizations. The legacy of conquest, colonialization, and commerce looms large in defining and explaining these threats.
The essays contained in this challenging volume are based on papers presented at an international conference on cultural heritage issues that took place at Willamette University . The conference sought to generate fresh ideas about these cultural heritage issues; offer a good sense of their nuances and complexities; and reveal how culture, law, and ethics can interact, complement, diverge, and contradict one another. This book seeks to accomplish these purposes. What it explores is the fact that, allong with an emerging blend of adversarial and collaborative processes to address cultural heritage issues, has come a substantial broadening of the normative framework in recent years. This framework now spans a welter of issues ranging from the creation of cultural safety zones during armed conflict, to the ongoing rectification of genocidal conquest during the European Holocaust and World War II, to the treatment of shipwrecks and their cargo, to the protection of folklore and other intangibles, to the promotion of traditional knowledge in the interest of biological diversity. All of these topics are controversial, as are the legal instruments that incorporate them, but the issues they embrace are vital to us all, whether our viewpoint is in the global arena, a national legislature, a courtroom, a classroom, an archaeological site, or a museum.

Cultural Heritage in the European Union

A Critical Inquiry into Law and Policy


Edited by Andrzej Jakubowski, Kristin Hausler and Francesca Fiorentini

Cultural Heritage in the European Union provides a critical analysis of the laws and policies which address cultural heritage throughout Europe, considering them in light of the current challenges faced by the Union. The volume examines the matrix of organisational and regulatory frameworks concerned with cultural heritage both in the Union and its Members States, as well as their interaction, cross-fertilisation, and possible overlaps. It brings together experts in their respective fields, including not only legal, but also cultural economists, heritage professionals, government representatives, and historians. The diverse backgrounds of the authors offer a cross-disciplinary approach and a variety of views which allows an in-depth scrutinisation of the latest developments pertaining to cultural heritage in Europe.

Revitalisation of Cultural Heritage in Mongolia

Development, Legislation and Academic Contribution

Dulam Bumochir and Gantulga Munkherdene

interpretations to understand the revival of traditional culture in Mongolia. Following their appeals, this article shows how Mongolians, since the 1990s, have slowly adopted and developed an alternative motivation to revitalise cultural heritage ( soyolyn öv ). The alternative motivation we find in this article

Art and Archaeology of Afghanistan

Its Fall and Survival. A Multi-disciplinary Approach.


Edited by Juliette van Krieken-Pieters

During the last couple of decades Afghanistan’s cultural heritage has faced exceptional challenges. Looting of the National Museum, ‘Kabul Museum’, the neglect of monuments and extensive illegal excavations have taken place. However, what really shook the world was the destruction of the Buddhas of Bamiyan in March 2001.
This volume focuses on Afghanistan’s cultural heritage protection. Its purpose is threefold. To provide an overview of the diversity of activities undertaken in the cultural heritage field. To change public opinion into a more positive one. And to serve as an example for future generations.
This multidisciplinary book (including contributions from archaeologists, linguists, and lawyers) will interest both scholars in the cultural, legal and humanistic field as well as the public at large. Many exceptional photographs are included.

Identity, Nationalism, and Cultural Heritage under Siege

Five Narratives of Pomak Heritage — From Forced Renaming to Weddings


Fatme Myuhtar-May

In Identity, Nationalism, and Cultural Heritage under Siege, Fatme Myuhtar-May makes a case for the recognition of Pomak heritage by presenting five stories from the past and present of the Rhodope Muslims in Bulgaria as examples of a distinct Pomak culture. The stories range from the Christianisation during the Balkan Wars of 1912-1913 and the forced communist renaming of the Pomaks in the 1970s, to their fascinating wedding rituals and historic figures. Each of the five narratives contains its own storyline and serves as a prominent example of Pomak heritage, from the author’s perspective. The stories take place in the context of fervent nationalism and the ongoing censorship of Pomakness based on the claim that it is an “ethnic Bulgarian,” not “Pomak” heritage.