DISTRIBUTION AND VARIABILITY OF SONG TYPES IN THE WOOD THRUSH by CARL L. WHITNEY1)2) and JOAN MILLER') (Rockefeller University Field Research Center, Millbrook, New York, U.S.A.) (With 7 Figures) (Acc. 6-I-1987) 1. Introduction In many oscine species males have a repertoire of two or more
Carl L. Whitney and Joan Miller
Peter K. Mcgregor and John R. Krebs
SONG TYPES IN A POPULATION OF GREAT TITS (PARUS MAJOR): THEIR DISTRIBUTION, ABUNDANCE AND ACQUISITION BY INDIVIDUALS by PETER K. MCGREGOR1) and JOHN R. KREBS (Edward Grey Institute of Ornithology, Oxford, England) (With 7 Figures and 3 plates) (Acc. 12-X-1981) 1. INTRODUCTION In this paper we
P.J.B. Slater, S.A. Ince and P.W. Colgan
CHAFFINCH SONG TYPES: THEIR FREQUENCIES IN THE POPULATION AND DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN REPERTOIRES OF DIFFERENT INDIVIDUALS by P. J. B. SLATER, S. A. INCE and P. W. COLGAN') 2) (Ethology & Neurophysiology Group, School of Biology, University of Sussex, Brighton, U.K.) (With 2 Figures) (Acc. 3-VII
Jong Sik Kim and Geoffrey Daniel
Although there is considerable information on the chemistry of bordered intervessel pit membranes, little is known on the pit membrane chemistry of other pit types in hardwoods. This study investigated distribution of phenolic compounds, pectins and hemicelluloses in different mature pit membranes of English oak xylem using transmission electron microscopy coupled with cytochemistry and immunocytochemistry. Mature bordered intertracheid (vasicentric)- and tracheid-vessel pits showed presence of xyloglucan and heteromannan (hemicelluloses) epitopes across the pit membrane (except for the annulus regions) with differences in amounts of epitopes between earlywood (EW) and latewood (LW). In contrast, pectin epitopes were detected only in the annulus regions of pit membranes. Unlike bordered pits, half-bordered (tracheary-parenchyma pits) and simple (parenchyma pits) pit membranes were rich in pectin epitopes but lacked heteromannan epitopes, indicating difference in pit membrane chemistry between pit types. Distribution of phenolic compounds also differed between pit types and between EW and LW. LW also showed great variations in distribution of phenolic compounds between vessels. Together, this study demonstrates that there are great variations in pit membrane chemistry between pit types and between EW and LW in English oak xylem.
Mansour Salati, Robert Riggs and Zahra Tanha Maafi
Nematology , 2008, Vol. 10(6), 919-924 Distribution, population density, race and type determination of soybean cyst nematode, Heterodera glycines , in Iran Zahra T ANHA M AAFI 1 , ∗ , Mansour S ALATI 2 and Robert D. R IGGS 3 1 Iranian Research Institute of Plant Protection, P.O. Box 1454
Yoko Watanabe, Yasuo Kojima, Toshihiro Ona, Takayuki Asada, Yuzou Sano, Kazumi Fukazawa and Ryo Funada
We examined the effects of polyphenols on the analysis of lignin by histochemical methods, namely, the Mäule color reaction coupled with microspectrophotometry and ultraviolet microspectrophotometry, in wood of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and E. globulus. Thin sections and wood meals were extracted with solutions of alkali at different concentrations. The amounts of alkali-soluble extractives increased with increasing concentrations of NaOH. By contrast, there was no clear correlation between amounts of Klason lignin and the concentration of NaOH. The visible-light absorption spectra of cell walls of all woody tissues from both species changed after alkali extraction. In particular, the spectra of cell walls of vessel elements changed considerably, even when only a dilute solution of alkali was used. Ultraviolet absorption spectra did not show clear changes after extraction with alkali. These results indicate that polyphenols in cell walls affect the results of histochemical analysis. Therefore, a preliminary extraction with alkali, namely, extraction with a 1% solution of NaOH, is needed to assess the precise distribution of lignins in the cell walls of Eucalyptus wood by histochemical methods. The cell walls of wood fibers of Eucalyptus camaldulensis contained both guaiacyl and syringyl units and those of vessel walls contained mostly guaiacyl units. However, the cell walls of wood fibers in Eucalyptus globulus contained mainly syringyl units, while those of vessel elements contained both guaiacyl and syringyl units. Syringyl-type polyphenols, which have spectra similar to those of syringyl-type lignins, were found in the cell walls of wood fibers and vessel elements and in cell corners among wood fibers in both species of Eucalyptus.
Jon Lewis and Jae-Cheon Sohn
Edited by Bernard Landry
Jessica Rettig, Kyle Renaldo, Geoffrey Smith, Brandon Helleman, Ja-Nell Riley and Cecilia Murch
composition can affect the distribution and abundance of terrestrial salamanders. We examined the effect of leaf litter type (deciduous or coniferous) and soil type (deciduous and coniferous) on red-backed salamander ( Plethodon cinereus ) substrate choice using a series of laboratory experiments. Salamanders